IPAC'24 - 15th International Particle Accelerator Conference

Music City Center

Music City Center

201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
Fulvia Pilat (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Wolfram Fischer (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Robert Saethre (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

The IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS) and the American Physical Society (APS) will host IPAC, the world's largest particle accelerator conference, May 19-24, 2024, at Music City Center in Nashville, Tennessee.

This Indico event manages the scientific program and the registration page for all attendees.

Visit the official website at https://www.IPAC24.org for more information about this conference.

Conference Registration
Scientific Secretariat
    • Communications among accelerator physicists, industry experts and students Room 106

      Room 106

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

      Cookies and coffee will be provided. We will create some activates to motivate the communications.

    • 12:00 PM
      Student networking lunch Room 106

      Room 106

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

      Lunch will be provided in the same room. Conversation continues.

    • Granted student training session Davidson Ballroom

      Davidson Ballroom

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

      We will assign granted students on their duties as scientific secretaries and poster guards for the regular poster sessions.

    • Student Poster Session: SUPC Country (MCC Exhibit Hall A)


      MCC Exhibit Hall A

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

      Round 1 poster judging: 2pm - 4pm
      Round 2 poster judging: 4pm - 6pm

      Convener: Kiersten Ruisard (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 1
        A faster algorithm to compute lowest order longitudinal and transverse resistive wall wake for non-ultrarelativistic case

        With the development of the steady state micro bunching (SSMB) storage ring, its parameters reveal that the ultra relativistic assumption which is wildly used is not valid for the electron beam bunch train, which has length in the 100 nm range, spacing of 1 μm and energy in hundreds MeV range. The strength of the interaction between such bunches and the potential instability may need careful evaluation. At the same time, the effect of the space charge inside a single bunch due to space charge effect also needs to be considered. In this article, we reorganized the lowest-order longitudinal wakefield under non-ultra relativistic conditions, and modified the inconsistent part in the theoretical derivation in some essays of the lowest-order transverse wakefield. We present the modified theoretical results and analysis. Then based on the result we have derived, we give a algorithm which is thousands time faster than direct calculation. It lays foundation in future research.

        Speaker: Mr Jiazhen Tang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 2
        A new rf design of the two-mode transevers deflecting structure

        SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facili-ty)/SXFEL (Shanghai Soft X-ray FEL) Facility has de-veloped an advanced variable polarization transverse deflecting structure TTDS (two-mode transverse deflect-ing structure) to perform variable polarization based on the design of a dual-mode RF structure. The 15-cell prototype of the TTDS was fabricated at SSRF/SXFEL. Because the two modes operate in the same structure, any geometric change will affect both modes. A new RF design of the regular cell is proposed to improve rf per-formance. The two modes are coupled independently in two pairs of side coupling holes. The work presented in this paper is focused on the new design and the rf param-eters compared with the initial design.

        Speaker: Yusen Guo (ShanghaiTech University)
      • 3
        A study for emittance growth compensation by space charge effects at the injector of KEK-STF after dry ice cleaning of the RF gun

        The Round to Flat Beam Transformation (RFBT) is one of the emittance exchange techniques that can improve the Luminosity for the future accelerator project International Linear collider (ILC). RFBT experiment can be conducted in the KEK-STF, and the expected performance is 334 in emittance ratio. In December 2023, we performed a pilot experiment at STF to optimize the injector conditions. To improve the RF Gun of STF, we applied dry ice cleaning to reduce the field emission. The field enhancement factor was improved from 233 to 100.

        Speaker: Sayantan Mukherjee (Hiroshima University)
      • 4
        An electron beam modulation laser for steady-state microbunching

        Steady-state microbunching (SSMB) represents an innovative scheme for generating high-power coherent radiation. This approach is expected to generate kilowatt-scale extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation for lithography in the semiconductor industry. During the second phase of the SSMB proof-of-principle experiment (SSMB PoP II), the creation of quasi-steady-state microbunches requires specific modulation of the electron beam. This modulation is achieved through a phase-locked laser with a high repetition rate, which enables the detection of continuous coherent radiation over multiple turns. To meet the requirements of SSMB PoP II, a high-power, high-repetition-rate, phase-stabilized pulsed laser has been developed. The single-frequency pulsed laser has been achieved using an electro-optic modulator stage, three amplification stages, and a phase-locked feedback system. Here we report on the development and test results of the electron beam modulation laser.

        Speaker: Xinyi Lu (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 5
        An experimental proposal for the strong-filed Terahertz generation at SXFEL facility

        Strong field Terahertz (THz) light source has been in-creasingly important for many scientific frontiers, while it is still a challenge to obtain THz radiation with high pulse energy at wide-tunable frequency. In this paper, we introduce an accelerator-based strong filed THz light source to obtain coherent THz radiation with high pulse energy and tunable frequency and X-ray pulse at the same time, which adopts a frequency beating laser pulse modulated electron beam. Here, we present the experimental preparation for the strong filed THz radiation at shanghai soft X-ray free-electron laser (SXFEL) facility and show its simulated radiation performance.

        Speaker: Kaiqing Zhang (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility)
      • 6
        An ultimate single-ion source using a Coulomb crystal in a Paul trap

        An ion cloud confined in a Paul trap eventually reaches a Coulomb crystalline state when strongly cooled toward absolute zero. The normalized emittance of the Coulomb crystal can be in the sub-femtometer range. The trap is thus usable as a unique ion source for nano-beam production, though the available beam intensity is limited. This new concept was first discussed nearly 20 years ago and later experimentally demonstrated by several research groups (, **). In this paper, we report on the result of a recent experiment where an attempt was made to extract Ca+ or N2+ ions one by one from a compact linear Paul trap. In addition to the regular extraction scheme based on a string Coulomb crystal, the possibility of using a multi-shell crystalline structure is explored in detail.

        Speaker: Kento Muroo (Hiroshima University)
      • 7
        Analyzing sudden beam loss in the SuperKEKB/Belle-II experiment with RFSoC technology

        In the SuperKEKB/Belle-II experiment, a multitude of elementary particle reactions is initiated through the collision of 4 GeV positrons with 7 GeV electrons, paving the way for the exploration of new physics. The experiment includes plans for the substantial enhancement of luminosity in the future, aiming to achieve an integrated luminosity approximately 100 times the current level. However, the realization of this goal is impeded by a recurrent occurrence of a phenomenon known as "Sudden Beam Loss," which entails the abrupt disappearance of the beam within tens of microseconds. The cause and location of these occurrences have not yet been identified.
        To provide the tools to diagnose and debug these sudden beam loss events, a new Bunch Oscillation Recorder (BOR) has been developed to analyze this phenomenon, utilizing the Radio Frequency System on Chip (RFSoC) from AMD/Xilinx. The beam position of each individual bunch is measured and recorded by the BOR just prior to the onset of sudden beam loss. We will present how the signal from the button beam position monitor of the beam pipe is processed by RFSoC, along with the results obtained from observing the actual SuperKEKB beam using RFSoC.

        Speaker: Riku Nomaru (The University of Tokyo)
      • 8
        Application and comparative analysis of the APES_CBI module in BEPC-II experimental results

        In this paper, we delve into the application and comparative analysis of the Accelerator Physics Emulation System Cavity-Beam Interaction (APES_CBI) module within the BEPC-II (Beijing Electron-Positron Collider) experiments. We developed the APES_CBI module as an advanced time-domain solver, specifically designed to analyze RLC circuits driven by beam and generator currents and to simulate the dynamic responses and synchrotron oscillations of charged particles within the cavity.
        We begin by discussing our method for solving RLC parallel circuits, followed by an explanation of the logical architecture of our program. In the second part, we detailed our simulation results, starting with the BEPC-II electron ring. By comparing these results with experimental data, we validate the reliability of our simulations, showcasing our module's ability. Additionally, we extend our simulations to the CEPC Higgs mode on-axis injection conditions and studied the transient phase response to the sudden change of beam pattern.

        Speaker: Siyuan Feng (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 9
        Automated emittance and energy gain optimization for plasma wakefield acceleration

        At the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET-II) accelerator, a pair of 10 GeV high-current electron beams is used to investigate Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) in plasmas of different lengths. While PWFA has achieved astonishingly high accelerating gradients of tens of GeV/m, matching the electron beam into the plasma wake is necessary to achieve a beam quality required for precise tuning of future high energy linear accelerators. The purpose of this study was to explore how start-to-end simulations could be used to optimize two important measures of beam quality, namely maximizing energy gain and minimizing transverse emittance growth in a 2 cm long plasma. These two beam parameters were investigated with an in-depth model of the FACET-II accelerator using numerical optimization. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the importance of utilizing beam-transport simulations in tandem with particle-in-cell simulations and provide insight into optimizing these two important beam parameters without the need to devote significant accelerator physics time tuning the FACET-II accelerator.

        Speaker: Mason Stobbe (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 10
        Background mitigation concepts for Super-NaNu

        Super-NaNu is a proposed neutrino experiment as part of the SHADOWS proposal for the high intensity facility ECN3 in CERN's North Area. It aims to detect neutrino interactions downstream of a beam-dump that is penetrated with a 400 GeV high intensity proton beam from the SPS. The experiment would run in parallel to the HIKE and SHADOWS experiments, taking data with an emulsion detector. Simulations show that various combinations of muon backgrounds pose the major limiting component for NaNu operation. As muons will leave tracks in the emulsion detector, their flux at the detector location is directly correlated to the frequency of emulation exchange and therefore with the cost of the experiment. Finding ways of mitigating the muon background as much as possible is therefore essential. In this paper, we present a possible mitigation strategy for muon backgrounds.

        Speaker: Florian Stummer (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 11
        BAGELS: A general method for minimizing the rate of radiative depolarization in electron storage rings

        We present a novel method for minimizing the effects of radiative depolarization in electron storage rings by use of vertical orbit bumps in the arcs. Electron polarization is directly characterized by the RMS of the so-called spin orbit coupling function in the bends. In the Electron Storage Ring (ESR) of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), as was the case in HERA, this function is excited by the spin rotators. Individual vertical orbit bumps in the arcs can have varying impacts on this function globally. In this method, we use a singular value decomposition of the response matrix of the spin-orbit coupling function with each orbit bump to define a minimal number of most effective groups of bumps, motivating the name “Best Adjustment Groups for ELectron Spin” (BAGELS) method. These groups can then be used to minimize the depolarizing effects in an ideal lattice, and to restore the minimization in rings with realistic closed orbit distortions. Furthermore, BAGELS can be used to construct groups for other applications where a minimal impact on polarization is desirable, e.g. global coupling compensation or vertical emittance creation. Application of the BAGELS method has significantly increased the polarization in simulations of the 18 GeV ESR, beyond achievable with conventional methods.

        Speaker: Matthew Signorelli (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 12
        Beam correction for multi-pass arcs in FFA@CEBAF: status update

        This work examines the multi-pass steering of six electron beams in an FFA arc ranging from approximately 10.5 GeV to 22 GeV. Shown here is an algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) to successfully steer all six beams through the arc given precise knowledge of all beam positions at each of one hundred and one diagnostic locations with one hundred individual corrector magnets: that is successive application of SVD to different 100 × 101 response matrices—one for each beam energy. Further, a machine learning scheme is developed which only requires knowledge of the energy-averaged beam position at each location to provide equivalent steering. Extension of this scheme to other beam optics quantities as well as transverse and longitudinal coupling is explored.

        Speaker: Alexander Coxe (Jefferson Lab)
      • 13
        Beam dynamics and injection condition in a ring-type dipole of a laser-accelerated electron beam for compact light sources

        We are developing a compact synchrotron light source using laser electron acceleration, focusing on creating a tabletop accelerator-based radiation system. Our approach involves a small ring-type dipole with block-shaped permanent magnets, prioritizing cost and weight reduction. Simple beam dynamic calculations revealed that a smaller electron beam divergence angle results in a more stable orbit and the field modulation of peak magnetic strength improves the stability without the additional quadrupoles. CST simulations shows that the magnetic field of the ring-type dipole includes the field modulation of peak magnetic strength along the orbit due to shape changes. The injection to the ring-type dipole is the one of the issues to be solved for a compact light source. In this paper, we present the studies on designing and optimizing the ring-type dipole including the injection of electron beam and the extraction of dipole radiation.

        Speaker: Keonho Kim (Korea University)
      • 14
        Beam dynamics study for a high-repetition-rate infrared terahertz FEL facility

        The paper introduces design and optimization of a high-repetition-rate infrared terahertz free-electron laser (IR-THz FEL) facility, which leverages optical resonator-based FEL technology to achieve a higher mean power output by increasing pulse frequency. Electron beam of the facility will be generated from a photocathode RF gun injector and further accelerated with a superconducting linear accelerator. Taking into account the collective effects, such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and longitudinal cavity wake field impacts, beam dynamics simulation for the injector, the accelerator, as well as the bunch compressor, has been done with codes of ASTRA and CSRTrack. With optimized microwave parameters of the linac, current profile with good symmetry has been obtained and the peak current can reach 100 A.

        Speaker: Yimin Yang (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 15
        Characterisation and optimisation of a C-band photo-injector for compact light sources

        We performed an optimisation study of a C-band photoinjector for high-charge electron beams. Such a device is capable of producing high brightness electron beams, with low energy spread and small transverse emittance, which are properties required by Inverse Compton Scattering radiation sources and compact light sources in general. This work aimed to carry out, via numerical simulations, optimisation and benchmark results of the beam generated by such photoinjector, in the pursuit of its real application in the context of current projects, namely EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB, and proposals such as BoCXS at the University of Bologna.

        Speaker: Francesco Demurtas (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 16
        Characterization of FEL mirrors with long ROCs

        FEL oscillators typically employ a two-mirror cavity with spherical mirrors. For storage ring FELs, a long, nearly concentric FEL cavity is utilized to achieve a reasonably small Rayleigh range, optimizing the FEL gain. A challenge for the Duke storage ring, with a 53.73 m long cavity, is the characterization of FEL mirrors with a long radius of curvature (ROC). The Duke FEL serves as the laser drive for the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). As we extend the energy coverage of the gamma-ray beam from 1 to 120 MeV, the FEL operation wavelength has expanded from infrared to VUV (1 micron to 170 nm). To optimize Compton gamma-ray production, the optimal value for the mirror's ROC needs to vary from 27.5 m to about 28.5 m. Measuring long mirror ROCs (> 10 m) with tight tolerances remains a challenge. We have developed two different techniques, one based on light diffraction and the other on geometric imaging, to measure the long ROCs. In this work, we present both techniques and compare their strengths and weaknesses when applied to measure mirror substrates with low reflectivity and FEL mirrors with high reflectivity.

        Speaker: William Delooze (Duke University)
      • 17
        Chemical robustness enhancement of negative electron affinity photocathodes through cesium-iodide deposition

        Photocathodes at Negative Electron Affinity (NEA), like GaAs and GaN, allow for efficient production of spin-polarized electrons. When activated to NEA with cesium and an oxidant, they are characterized by an extreme sensitivity to chemical poisoning, resulting in a short operational lifetime. In this work, we demonstrate that deposition of a cesium iodide (CsI) layer can be used to enhance the dark lifetime of both GaN and GaAs photocathodes activated with cesium. The mechanism behind this improvement is investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques.

        Speaker: Samuel Levenson (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 18
        Commissioning of spectral diagnostics and future concepts for the PAX experiment at FACET-II

        The ongoing Plasma-driven Attosecond X-ray source experiment (PAX) at FACET-II aims to produce coherent soft X-ray pulses of attosecond duration using a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator [1]. These kinds of X-ray pulses can be used to study chemical processes where attosecond-scale electron motion is important. For this first stage of the experiment, PAX plans to demonstrate that <100 nm bunch length electron beams can be generated using the 10 GeV beam accelerated in the FACET-II linac and using the plasma cell to give it a percent-per-micron chirp. The strongly chirped beam is then compressed in a weak chicane to sub-100 nm length, producing CSR in the final chicane magnet at wavelengths as low as 10s of nm. In this contribution we describe the commissioning of the spectral diagnostics as well as the results expected of this experiment.
        Additionally, we describe a future iteration of the experiment in which short undulators are used to drive coherent harmonic generation to produce attosecond gigawatt X-ray pulses at 2 and 0.4 nm, with lengths comparable to the shortest attosecond pulses ever measured at 2 nm using HHG.

        Speaker: Rafi Hessami (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 19
        Compact high average power THz source driven by thermionic RF gun

        This work presents the design of a compact high-efficiency terahertz source, a collaborative effort between UCLA and RadiaBeam Technologies. The system, driven by a thermionic RF gun, features prebunching elements including alpha-magnet and electromagnetic chicane to effectively compress the long beam generated from the gun. By sending such beam into tapering enhanced waveguide oscillator, we can achieve high efficiency energy extraction in different regimes. This work focuses on the beam dynamics in the beamline prior injection into the undulator. A brief mention of the simulation results for radiation generation is also presented.

        Speaker: Yining Yang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 20
        Comparison of flat beam PWFA analytic model with PIC simulations

        This paper explores the phenomenon of asymmetric blowout in plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA), where the transversely asymmetric beam creates a transversely asymmetric blowout cavity in plasma. This deviation from the traditional axisymmetric models leads to unique focusing effects in the transverse plane and accelerating gradient depending on the transverse coordinates. We extend our series of studies on plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) by comparing our recently developed analytic model on the blowout cavity shape created by transversely asymmetric long beams, with Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. The analysis focuses on validating the model's ability to predict the behaviors of different beam profiles in this regime.

        Speaker: Pratik Manwani (University of California, Los Angeles)
      • 21
        Computational simulations and beamline optimizations for an electron beam degrader at CEBAF

        An electron beam degrader is under development with the objective of measuring the transverse and longitudinal acceptance of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. This project is in support of the CE+BAF positron capability. Computational simulations of beam-target interactions and particle tracking were performed integrating the GEANT4 and Elegant toolkits. A solenoid was added to the setup to control the beam's divergence. Parameter optimization of the solenoid field and magnetic quadrupoles gradient was also performed to further reduce particle loss through the rest of the injector beamline.

        Speaker: Victor Lizárraga-Rubio (Universidad de Guanajuato)
      • 22
        Crystal collimation for the HL-LHC upgrade using MERLIN++ accelerator physics library

        This paper details the implementation and benchmarking of crystal collimation within MERLIN++ accelerator physics library and demonstrates its application in simulating crystal collimation process for the High Luminosity(HL) upgrade of Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Crystal collimation is one of the key technologies suggested to enhance the current collimation system according to the requirements of HL-LHC upgrade due to its increased beam energy and luminosity. This paper outlines the proposed methodology for this study which includes implementing the demonstrated physics of particle crystal interaction in MERLIN++, benchmarking it with the existing experimental data for simulating the HL-LHC operational scenarios with the crystals as primary collimators. MERLIN++ has already been efficiently used for multiple LHC collimation studies which highlights its importance , making it an essential simulation tool for comparative analysis with other simulation tools, as relying on a single tool for concluding the HL-LHC collimation system is often insufficient. As collimation systems are fundamental for machine protection , accurately predicting the crystal collimation performance is of utmost importance to know how they will perform in HL-LHC to guarantee that the HL-LHC meets its intended objectives with crystal collimators.

        Speaker: Raiza Babu (International Institute for Accelerator Applications)
      • 23
        Dark current in the LCLS Injector: characterization and mitigation strategies

        In addition to the desired electron beam, RF photoinjectors such as the one in LCLS-II produce dark current via field emission. Left unchecked, the dark current can cause various operational issues in the accelerator, such as increased radiation, damage to accelerator components and diagnostics, and desorption of gases from vacuum chamber surfaces. In this contribution, we present measurements of the dark current in the LCLS-II injector, including imaging, current, and energy distributions of the observed dark current emitters. These measurements allow us to characterize each emitter in terms of the Fowler-Nordheim model of field emission, which in turn enables us to more accurately model the behavior of the dark current in the accelerator. Taking these results into account, we also present potential active and passive mitigation strategies.

        Speaker: Sean Littleton (Stanford University)
      • 24
        Dark current reduction for NSRRC photoinjector system by collimator

        The coherent THz facility developed at NSRRC delivers superradiant radiation with wavelengths ranging from 100 – 500 um from a gap tuneable U100 planar undulator. An S-band laser-driven photocathode rf gun has been used in its 25 MeV linac system to generate a sub-picosecond high brightness relativistic electron beam via velocity bunching for emission of coherent THz radiations. However, the high accelerating field in the gun cavity is found to be the main cause of electron field emission that generates the non-negligible background current (dark current) in the system. A portion of the field emission (FE) electrons with launching conditions close to that of the main beam can be accelerated to high energies by the booster linac structure located downstream. The primary cause of excessive radiation dosage stems from the collision of these unwanted high-energy electrons with the system's vacuum vessel. In order to limit the transportation of FE electrons from rf gun to the booster linac, a collimation system will be implemented at upstream of the booster linac. In this work, the drive linac system has been modeled with 3D space charge tracking code – IMPACT-T for both main beam as well as dark current simulation. Particle transmission and energy distribution of dark current after collimation has been simulated. Trajectories of electrons at various initial positions and particle loss mechanism have also been analyzed.

        Speaker: Yang Jen Lin (National Tsing-Hua University)
      • 25
        Dark current studies for a SW C-band electron gun with a deflector

        To generate the very high brightness beams in light sources, injectors based on radiofrequency photo-guns with very high peak electric fields on the cathode are used. However, this very high surface electric field on the surface of a radio frequency cavity leads to the generation of dark current due to the field emission effect which can damage the instrumentation and radio-activate components. Consequently, it is important to reduce the emission of these electrons and evaluate the subsequent transportation. In this paper, the deflector has been innovatively positioned at the exit of the photo-gun so as to reduce the dark current as much as possible. The dark current emission and spectrum of the dark current of the C-band electron gun have been evaluated by Particle-In-Cell simulations. The dark current before the accelerating sections has been captured and observed both with and without the deflector.

        Speaker: Jia Hao Tian (ShanghaiTech University)
      • 26
        Demonstration of enhanced quantum efficiency from optical interference in alkali antimonide photocathodes

        We present measurements of enhanced quantum efficiency (QE) in thin film photocathodes due to optical interference in the cathode-substrate multilayer. Modulations in the quantum efficiency of Cs$_{3}$Sb films grown on multilayer 3C-SiC substrates are observed over a range of visible wavelengths, and are shown to increase the QE by more than a factor of two at certain wavelengths. We derive a model to describe the modulations in QE based on a three step photoemission process incorporating cases of both constant density of states and density functional theory (DFT) derived density of states, which is shown to be in good agreement with the measurements. Predictions from the model show that the QE can be enhanced by more than a factor of four by optimizing the cathode and substrate layer thicknesses. We also find that by optimizing layer thicknesses of the cathode-substrate system in the calculation, optical interference can enhance the QE beyond optically dense films. Advantages of this interference effect for electron accelerator sources are discussed.

        Speaker: Chad Pennington (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 27
        Design of prototype magnet for FETS-FFA

        Capable of achieving a high repetition rate with strong focusing, Fixed Field Alternating gradient (FFA) accelerators have the potential to be used for pulsed high intensity operations. With no pulsed high intensity FFA ever built so far, a prototype machine called FETS-FFA has been proposed to study the FFA option for the next generation spallation neutron source (ISIS-II). One of the essential components of this machine will be the main magnets which must satisfy the following conditions: zero chromaticity during acceleration, flexibility in operating tune point to test dynamics for high beam intensity and a large dynamic aperture to avoid uncontrolled loss. The chosen lattice design utilizes spiral magnets to provide edge focusing to focus in the vertical direction while also introducing a reverse bending magnet to better control the vertical tune. A three-dimensional study is being carried out in OPERA 3D software to investigate the parameters of the magnets to achieve the required field. The details on the design will be presented in this paper.

        Speaker: Ta-Jen Kuo (Imperial College of Science and Technology)
      • 28
        Design, fabrication, and testing of a W-band corrugated waveguide for Wakefield acceleration

        In the field of structure wakefield acceleration there is considerable interest in radiofrequency (RF) structures capable of producing high gradients. Structures in the sub-terahertz (sub-THz) regime are of note due to their high gradient and high efficiency, allowing for a low physical footprint. In the pursuit of this goal we have designed a metallic corrugated W-band structure using the CST Studio Suite. After optimizing for the maximum achievable gradient from a nominal Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) electron bunch at 65 MeV with a Gaussian distribution we attempted to achieve a higher transformer ratio using a shaped bunch. Shaped bunches such as these are achievable at the AWA emittance exchange (EEX) beamline. Preliminary results from the structure testing at AWA using shaped electron bunches will be presented. Further tests are planned, involving a comprehensive optimization of the beamline at AWA.

        Speaker: Brendan Leung (Northern Illinois University)
      • 29
        Development of an S-band multi-beam acclearator for stationary CT application

        Stationary CT is a novel CT technology to significantly improve scanning speed, by using distributed multiple ray sources instead of conventional helical rotation with single source. This work presents an S-band multi-beam accelerator as a multiple MV-level X-ray source for industrial stationary CT application. This accelerator consists of 7 parallel-distributed acceleration cavity and 6 coupling cavity, operating in pi/2 standing-wave mode with a centre frequency of 2998MHz. This structure can generate 0.7 MeV electrons with 100 mA peak current at each beamline according to the imaging requirement. The novel multiple high-energy X-ray source will fill in the blank of source requirements in industrial stationary CT application.

        Speaker: Mr Qingzhu Li (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 30
        Development of new method of NEA Activation with Cs-Sb-O

        Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) activated GaAs photocathodes are the only one capable of generating spin-polarized electron beam larger than 90%. However, the NEA layer currently made from mainstream cesium (Cs) and oxygen (O) is chemically unstable, the NEA-GaAs photocathode has a rapid QE degradation over time or electron beam. As a result, it requires an operating vacuum pressure of 1e-9 Pa and has a short lifetime. Recently, a new NEA layer using heterojunctions with semiconductor thin film of alkali metals and antimony or tellurium has been proposed. The latest research shows that the NEA activation method using Cs-Sb-O is made by co-evaporation of Cs, O2 and Sb. However, the co-evaporation method has high demands on equipment. Therefore, in this work, we attempted to fabricate a Cs-Sb-O NEA layer using a separation evaporation method. Specifically, we attempted four recipes and successfully fabricated the NEA layer by Cs-Sb-O. We also evaluated the dependence of QE on Sb thickness and found that it is easy to form a NEA layer with 0.2 nm of Sb.

        Speaker: Yukiya Wakita (Nagoya University)
      • 31
        Dynamic aperture of the RCS during bunch merges

        The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) will be used to accelerate polarized electrons from 400 MeV to a top energy of 5, 10, or 18 GeV before injecting into the Electron Storage Ring. At 1 GeV, the RCS will perform a merge of two bunches into one, adding longitudinal dynamics that effects the dynamic aperture, depending on the merge parameters. In this paper, results for different merge models will be compared, as well as finding the relationship between the merge parameters of the RCS and its dynamic aperture.

        Speaker: Daria Kuzovkova (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 32
        Electron cloud studies for DAΦNE collider and FCCee damping ring

        DAΦNE is a a medium energy electron-positron collider operating in the National Laboratory of INFN at Frascati, Italy. The accelerator complex consists of two rings with an approximate circumference of 97 m. High-intensity electron and positron beams circulate and collide with the center of mass energy of around 1.02 GeV. The FCCee is an ongoing lepton collider project and its current injector design includes a damping ring for emittance cooling of positron beams. The electron cloud is one the most important collective effects and can represent a bottleneck for the performances of accelerators storing particles with positive charge. Several undesired effects such as transverse instabilities, beam losses, emittance growth, energy deposition, vacuum degradation may arise due to interaction of the circulating beam with the e-cloud. The aim of this presentation is to provide e-cloud buildup simulations for the DAΦNE positron ring and the Damping Ring of FCCee. This study will also include experimental studies concerning the instabilities induced by the e-cloud exploiting the opportunity offered by the positron beam at DAΦNE.

        Speaker: Senem Ozdemir (Ege University)
      • 33
        ELISA: a compact linear accelerator for societal applications

        The experience gained at CERN by the R&D for LINAC4 has been exported to medical and societal applications. With an innovative design of the Radio Frequecy Quadrupole (RFQ) at high frequencies, it is possible to build very com- pact structures, reproducible in industry and with the po- tential of full portability. ELISA (Experimental LInac for Surface Analysis) is a linear proton accelerator installed in the Science Gateway exhibition at CERN since October 2023. With a footprint of only 2×1 square meters, ELISA consists of an ion source, a one-meter-long RFQ working at 750 MHz and an analysing line dedicated to Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The system can accelerate a proton beam (extracted from the source at 20 keV) up to an energy of 2 MeV. In this paper the ELISA source commissioning is presented, with a multi-parameter optimization performed both computationally and experimentally and the ultimate optimization of beam emittance at 20 keV, finally achieving the required brilliance of the source. High energy beam com- missioning will also be discussed, including RFQ voltage scan to study the transmission and characterize the ELISA RFQ.

        Speaker: Eleonora Pasino (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 34
        Energy dependence of PS main unit harmonics

        CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) is featured with 100 C-shaped combined-function Main Units (MUs) magnets with a complicated pole shape. The operation and the modelling of the PS-MUs has been historically carried out with empirical beam-based studies. However, it would be interesting to understand whether, starting from a proper magnetic model and using the predicted harmonics as input to optics simulations, it is possible to accurately predict the beam dynamics behavior in the PS, and assess the model accuracy with respect to beam-based measurements. To evaluate the magnetic model quality and its predictions, bare-machine configurations at different energies were prepared, where only the Main Coil is powered and the additional circuits are off. In this paper, a comparison of tunes and chromaticity measurements with the predicted optics is reported, showing the saturation of the quadrupolar and sextupolar components at high energy, which affect these quantities.

        Speaker: Vittorio Ferrentino (University of Naples Federico II)
      • 35
        Energy deposition and radiation level studies for the FCC-ee experimental insertions

        The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study foresees the construction of a 90.6 km underground ring where, as a first stage, a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) is envisaged, operating at beam energies from 45.6 GeV (Z pole) to 182.5 GeV (ttbar). In the FCC-ee experimental interaction regions, various physical processes give rise to particle showers that can be detrimental to machine components as well as equipment in the tunnel, such as cables and electronics. In this work, we evaluate the impact of the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dipoles and the beamstrahlung radiation from the interaction point (IP). The Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used to quantify the power deposited in key machine elements, such as the beamstrahlung dump and the dipole and quadrupole magnets, as well as the cumulative radiation levels in the tunnel. We also examine the effect of synchrotron radiation absorbers in the vacuum chamber, in combination with additional shielding. The results are presented for the different operation modes, namely Z pole and ttbar.

        Speaker: Alessandro Frasca (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 36
        Evaluation of ultrafast THz near-fields for electron streaking

        THz-frequency accelerating structures could provide the accelerating gradients needed for compact next generation particle accelerators. One of the most promising THz generation techniques for accelerator applications is optical rectification in lithium niobate using the tilted pulse front method. However, accelerator applications are limited by losses during transport and coupling of THz radiation to the acceleration structure. Applying the near-field of the lithium niobate source directly to the electron bunch removes losses due to transport and coupling, yielding a simplified and efficient system. Using electro-optic sampling we have reconstructed the full temporal 3D THz near-field close to the lithium niobate emission face and shown that it can be controlled by manipulating the generation setup. Analysis of the results of this measurement shows an estimated peak field strength of 86 MV/m. A future THz near-field electron streaking experiment is currently planned as a first test of manipulating an electron bunch with the THz near field. Analysis for this planned experiment has yielded an estimated THz near-field kick strength of 23 keV.

        Speaker: Annika Gabriel (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 37
        Expanding the CERN ion injector chain capabilities: new beam dynamics simulation tools for future ion species

        The present ion physics program in the CERN accelerator complex is mainly based on Pb ion beams. The ALICE3 detector upgrade proposal at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requests significantly higher integrated nucleon-nucleon luminosity compared to the present Pb beams, which can potentially be achieved with lighter ion species. These lighter ion species have also been requested by the fixed-target experiment NA61/SHINE in the CERN North Area (NA). To assess the performance capabilities of the CERN Ion Injector chain (consisting of Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS) for light ions, for which there is little or no operational experience at CERN, beam-brightness and intensity limitations need to be studied. This contribution presents tracking simulation results for the PS and SPS, compared against recent experimental beam data for Pb in the Ion Injectors. These simulations include limiting beam-dynamics effects such as space charge and intra-beam scattering, and their impact on the intensity and emittance evolution is discussed. These simulation models are used to predict the optimal ion species for maximum performance out of the Ion Injector Chain.

        Speaker: Elias Waagaard (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 38
        Experimental characterization of the timing-jitter effects on a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

        Plasma wakefield acceleration is nowadays very attractive in terms of accelerating gradient, able to overcome conventional accelerators by orders of magnitude. However, this poses very demanding requirements on the accelerator stability to avoid large instabilities on the final beam energy. In this study we analyze the correlation between the driver-witness distance jitter (due to the RF timing jitter) and the witness energy gain in a plasma wakefield accelerator stage. Experimental measurements are reported by using an electro-optical sampling diagnostics with which we correlate the distance between the driver and witness beams prior to the plasma accelerator stage. The results show a clear correlation due to such a distance jitter highlighting the contribution coming from the RF compression.

        Speaker: Francesco Demurtas (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 39
        Experimental investigation of zero transverse force modes in sub-THz dielectric lined waveguide

        Dielectric-lined waveguides have been extensively studied for high-gradient acceleration in beam-driven dielectric wakefield acceleration (DWFA) and for beam manipulations, including the application of zero transverse force modes in the waveguides. In this paper, we investigate the zero transverse force modes excited by a relativistic electron bunch passing through a dielectric waveguide with a rectangular transverse cross section. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the start-to-end beamline using Opal-t, ELEGANT, and WARPX. A Longitudinal Phase Space (LPS) measurement system is used to understand the interaction of the beam with the waveguide modes, and analysis of the resolution of the LPS system was conducted. We will discuss preliminary experimental data collected at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) benchmarked with the simulation results.

        Speaker: Cassandra Phillips (Northern Illinois University)
      • 40
        First FCC-ee lattice design with nested magnets

        The Future Circular Electron-Positron Collider (FCC-ee) represents a cutting-edge particle physics facility designed to further investigate the Z, W± and Higgs boson in addition to the top quark. The implementation of Nested Magnets (NMs) in the FCC-ee arc cells would maintain high luminosity and reduce its energy consumption. The use of these special magnets induces changes in the damping partition numbers. To mitigate this the dipole fields in focusing and defocusing quadrupoles have to be different. This solution gives rise to incompatibility problems for the machine layout between the different energy configurations as the optics is also changed. This problem is tackled by defining different bending and geometric angles for the NMs. The beam dynamics and performance aspects of the new lattice are studied in this paper.

        Speaker: Cristobal Miguel Garcia Jaimes (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 41
        First implementation of RF-KO slow extraction at COSY

        Radio Frequency Knock Out (RF-KO) resonant slow extraction is commissioned at the Cooler Synchrotron (COSY) Jülich for the first time to extract the stored beam and deliver spills with constant particle rates to the experiments. Therefore, transverse RF excitation generated with a software-defined radio is applied to control the extraction rate. A built-in feedback system adjusts the excitation amplitude to maintain the desired extraction rate. To suppress fluctuations of the particle rate on timescales of milliseconds and below, an optimization algorithm is used to tune the RF excitation signals. The method was used extensively during the final run of COSY in 2023, reliably delivering stable beams to various users.

        Speaker: Philipp Niedermayer (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH)
      • 42
        Flat beam transport for a PWFA experiment at AWA

        Particle beams with asymmetric transverse emittances and profiles have been utilized in facilities for driving wakefields in dielectric waveguides and to drive plasma wakefields in plasma. The asymmetric plasma structures created by the beam produce focusing forces that are transversely asymmetric. We utilize the ellipticity of the plasma ion cavity to model the beam evolution of the flat beam driver.

        Speaker: Pratik Manwani (University of California, Los Angeles)
      • 43
        Framework for a multiphysics model of optical field emission from extended nanostructures

        Laser-field emission, or optical field emission, is a process that can produce electron beams with high charge density and high brightness with ultrafast response times. Using an extended nanostructure, such as a nanoblade, permits plasmonic field enhancement up to 80 V/nm with an incident ultrafast laser of wavelength 800 nm. Stronger ionizing fields lead to higher current densities, so understanding how this field is attained will aid in further increasing brightness. In this paper we lay the framework to study the nanoblade system thermomechanically and plasmonically. We show that, in the moving frame following the laser driver, a steady state is reached, allowing us to reduce the computational complexity of the multiphysics calculation. We derive Maxwell's equations and the current dynamical equation for the steady state in such a moving frame. We also derive the eigenproblem for finding plasmonic modes in the structure with a nonlinear dielectric. The planned calculations to come will allow us to predict peak attainable fields and optimal experimental parameters. We leave off with a discussion of directions for numerical implementation.

        Speaker: Joshua Mann (University of California, Los Angeles)
      • 44
        Generating tunable X-ray optical frequency combs using a free-electron laser

        As an important experimental tool, the Optical Frequency Combs (OFCs) has had a profound impact on research in various fields, whereas, generating high power high repetition frequency OFCs at tunable frequencies is still a limitation for most of the existing methods. In this study, free-electron laser (FEL) is proposed to generate coherent X-ray OFC with a tunable repetition frequency and high pulse energy. The approach involves using a proper seed laser with frequency modulation, followed by amplification in the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) mode to generate X-ray OFCs. Numerical simulations using the realistic beam parameters of the Shanghai soft X-ray free-electron laser facility have demonstrated the feasibility of generating X-ray OFCs. These OFCs have a peak power of about 1.5 GW and repetition frequencies ranging from 6 THz to 12 THz at Centre energies carbon K edge (~284 eV). The proposed technique presents new possibilities for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy and Terabit-level coherent optical communication, etc.

        Speaker: Lanpeng Ni (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 45
        High fidelity numerical modelling and condition monitoring applied to septum magnets at CERN

        The CERN Accelerator Beam Transfer group has recently launched a study to investigate the life cycles of pulsed septum magnets. The development is aiming to enhance the prediction of anomalies, leading to reduced life cycles of these beam transfer equipment. For this reason, the standard vacuum operated, direct drive septa magnet has been chosen to investigate critical design features. In the initial project phase, a so called High-Fidelity (HF) numerical simulation has been carried out, providing insight on critical components, like brazed joints, reducing the fatigue life. In parallel a dedicated test setup with state-of-the-art instrumentation has been developed, allowing to confirm the predicted system response. The novel approach for the beam transfer equipment will allow to review presently established design criteria. In a further iteration, the project is now aiming to demonstrate an anomaly detection and their prediction based on novel machine learning techniques. This paper presents the initial phase of developing the HF model, as well as the results of the instrumented magnet tests which will be compared to results from the numerical simulations.

        Speaker: Krzysztof Kawa (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 46
        High gradient operation of cryogenic C-band RF photogun at UCLA

        Future electron accelerator applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and ultrafast electron diffraction are dependent on significantly increasing beam brightness. We have designed and produced a new CrYogenic Brightness-Optimized Radiofrequency Gun (CYBORG) for use in a new beamline at UCLA to study the brightness improvements achievable in this novel low temperature high gradient accelerating environment. We are currently in the process of commissioning the photogun for operation with peak cathode fields in excess of 120 MV/m. We report here on the status of conditioning the photogun and report on dark current measurements and maximum field achieved thus far.

        Speaker: Gerard Lawler (University of California, Los Angeles)
      • 47
        High-energy and narrow-bandwidth X-ray regenerative amplifier FEL design for LCLS-II-HE

        LCLS-II-HE is an energy upgrade of the LCLS-II linac from 4 GeV to 8 GeV. The X-ray FEL photon energy (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode) will extend towards 12 keV (from the present 5 keV) based on the current beam emittance. To reach higher photon energy range towards 20 keV, a new injector with a much brighter electron beam will be required. Here we study an X-ray regenerative amplifier FEL (XRAFEL) configuration that enables reaching 20 keV photon energy with the current LCLS-II injector parameters, by reamplifying the cavity-returned X-rays in the LCLS-II undulator over multiple passes. At 20 keV, the Bragg mirrors have very narrow angular and wavelength acceptances. In this paper, we discuss how to layout the cavity optics in combination with the electron-beam based Q-switching method to generate fully coherent bright high-energy X-rays with 20 meV spectral bandwidth.

        Speaker: Madison Singleton (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 48
        Improvements to 4-rod RFQs with additive manufacturing processes

        The institute of applied physics (IAP), university of Frankfurt, has been working for years on the development of increasingly powerful 4-Rod RFQ accelerators for hadron acceleration. The need for such accelerators has increased significantly in the recent past, as accelerator-driven neutron sources are becoming increasingly important following the closure of various test reactors. High beam currents, particle energies and operational stability are often required from those LINACs. In order to meet these requirements, the copper structure of the RFQ is to be manufactured using a new type of pure copper 3D printing in order to be able to introduce optimized cooling channels inside the copper parts. Comprehensive multiphysics simulations with ansys, cst and autodesk CFD will first be carried out to evaluate the operational stability and performance. In addition, it will be clarified whether the printed copper fulfills the necessary vacuum and conductivity requirements after CNC processing, or whether galvanic copper plating should be carried out.

        Speaker: Julius-Stephan Storch (Goethe Universität Frankfurt)
      • 49
        Instability of asymmetric electron drive beams in hollow plasma channels

        Using hollow plasma channels is one approach to compact positron acceleration, potentially reducing the cost and footprint of future linear colliders. However, it is prone to transverse instabilities since beams misaligned from the channel axis tend to get deflected into the channel boundary. In contrast, asymmetric electron drive beams can tolerate misalignment and propagate stably after the initial evolution, but this has only been reported for short distances. In this work, we use quasi-static particle-in-cell simulations to demonstrate the instability of asymmetric drivers even after splitting into two beamlets and reaching equilibrium. As the driver decelerates, its particles gradually return into the channel, making the driver susceptible to deflection by the transverse dipole mode. To understand this behavior, the transverse motion of an individual beam particle is modeled. Strategies to mitigate this instability are also proposed.

        Speaker: Rafael Yrjosmiel Legaspi (Mapúa University)
      • 50
        Introducing a semi-Gaussian mixture model for simulating multiple coulomb scattering in RF-Track

        Within the context of a design study of a LINAC for ionization cooling, this paper presents the result of incorporating a scattering model in RF-Track (v2.1) for charged particles heavier than electrons. This inclusion enables simulations for applications like ionization cooling channels for muon colliders. Within RF-Track, a novel semi-Gaussian mixture model has been introduced to describe the deflection of charged particles in material. This innovative model comprises a Gaussian core and a non-Gaussian tail function to account for the effects of single hard scattering. To validate the accuracy of our results, we conducted a benchmarking comparison against other particle tracking codes, with the outcomes demonstrating a high level of agreement.

        Speaker: Bernd Stechauner (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 51
        Lattice design of a pulsed synchrotron for a muon collider fitting within the Fermilab site boundary

        A muon collider allows one to have a high energy reach for physics studies while having a relatively compact footprint. Ideally such a machine would accelerate muon beams to about 5 TeV. We present a preliminary lattice design for a pulsed synchrotron that will accelerate muon beams to their maximum collision energy and having a circumference of 16.5 km, which would allow it to fit just within the Fermilab site boundary. We wish to estimate the maximum energy that muons can be accelerated to on the Fermilab site based on a realistic lattice layout. To achieve a high average bend field, superconducting fixed field dipoles are interleaved with iron-dominated dipoles whose field is rapidly ramped from negative to positive field. Multiple RF stations are required to ensure that the beam energy and the dipole fields are reasonably well synchronized and to avoid longitudinal losses due to the large synchrotron tune. We use FODO arc cells with dispersion suppressed into the RF straights. We will discuss tradeoffs between maximum energy, energy range, and muon decays. We will consider whether to mix superconducting and iron quadrupoles like the dipoles.

        Speaker: Kyle Capobianco-Hogan (Stony Brook University)
      • 52
        LHC 2023 ion optics commissioning

        In 2023, about 2 months of the LHC operation were devoted to the Heavy Ions physics, after more than 5 years since the last ion run. In this paper, the results of the 2023 Ion optics commissioning are reported. Local corrections in Interaction Point (IP) 1 and 5 were reused from the regular proton commissioning, but the optics measurement showed the need for new local corrections in IP2. We observed that an energy trim of the level of 10e-4 helped to reduce the optics errors at top energy. The dedicated measurements during the energy ramp revealed a larger than expected beta-beat, which is consistent with an energy mismatch. Furthermore, global corrections were performed to reach a β-beating of about 5% for the collision optics.

        Speaker: Vittorio Ferrentino (University of Naples Federico II)
      • 53
        Linking edge-ML X-ray diagnostics and adaptable photoinjector laser shaping for leveraging the capabilities of LCLS-II

        SLAC's LCLS-II is rapidly advancing towards MHz repetition rate attosecond X-ray pulses, opening new opportunities to leverage the abundance of data in combination with advances in machine learning (ML) to better align the x-ray source with specific experimental goals. We approach the challenge from both ends of the facility. Starting at the X-ray output, we showcase our low latency, high throughput ML algorithms implemented at-the-edge for X-ray detection and reconstruction in the Multi-Resolution 'Cookiebox' (MRCO) angle resolved electron spectrometer with its 16 electron time-of-flight detectors. MRCO performs spectro-temporal characterization of X-ray profiles with a resolution that allows single shot identification of well-seeded shots versus SASE background at MHz rate. MRCO enables fast feedback, so we also tackle the problem as a control issue, focusing on programmable photoinjector laser shaping to adjust the initial electron bunch. Towards this end of using advances in ML to explore the parameter space for optimizing X-ray production, we present our progress towards a digital twin linking the photoinjector laser all the way through MRCO in the endstation diagnostics.

        Speaker: Jack Hirschman (Stanford University)
      • 54
        Luminosity effects due to dependent heavy-tailed beams

        The luminosity of particle colliders depends, among other parameters, on the transverse profiles of the colliding beams. At the LHC at CERN, heavy-tailed transverse beam distributions are typically observed in routine operation. The luminosity is usually modelled with the assumption that the 𝑥-𝑦 planes are independent (i.e. statistically uncorrelated particle distributions between the planes) in each beam. Analytical calculations show that the solution of inverting 1D heavy-tailed beam profiles to transverse 4D phase-space distributions is not unique. For a given transverse beam profile, the distributions can be dependent (i.e. statistically correlated) or independent in the transverse planes, even in the absence of machine coupling. In this work, the effect of transverse 𝑥-𝑦 dependence of the 4D phase space distribution on the luminosity of a particle collider is evaluated for heavy-tailed beams.

        Speaker: Elleanor Lamb (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 55
        Magnetic field modelling and symplectic integration of magnetic fields on curved reference frames for improved synchrotron design: first steps

        Compact synchrotrons, such as those proposed for cancer therapy, use short and highly bent dipoles. Large curvature drives non-linear effects in both body and fringe fields, which may be critical to control to obtain the desired dynamic aperture. Similarly to current practice, for straight magnet, our long-term goal is to aim at finding a parametrization of the field map that requires few terms to capture the relevant long term dynamical effects. This parametrization will then be used to optimize the performance of the synchrotron by long-term tracking simulations and, at the same time, drive the development of the magnet design by providing measurable quantities that can be computed from field maps. This paper presents the first steps towards the goal of representing the field with a few key parameters.

        Speaker: Silke Van der Schueren (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 56
        Magnetic field study for air-cored HTS skeleton cyclotron

        Skeleton cyclotron is a compact size air-cored cyclotron with a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil system. HTS coils’ high critical current density and high heat stability allow magnetic field induction without using any iron core. With this advantage, the magnetic field configuration can be adjusted quickly without consideration for the hysteresis from iron. The purpose of skeleton cyclotron is to change the beam type quickly between proton, deuteron and alpha particle for the needs of various RI production. In order to achieve this goal, the coil system has to be designed with superconductors’ properties taken into account, such as critical current density under strong external magnetic field etc. In this work, the coil system and magnetic field designed for the skeleton cyclotron will be presented. The capability of accelerating various beam type will also be discussed.

        Speaker: Tsun Him Chong (Osaka University)
      • 57
        Measurements of beam correlations induced via coupled resonance crossing in the CERN PSB

        Beam profile measurements in the LHC and its injector complex show heavy tails in both transverse planes. From standard profile measurements, it is not possible to determine
        if the underlying phase space distribution is statistically independent. A measurement campaign in the CERN PSB was carried out to introduce cross-plane dependence in bunched beams in controlled conditions, in view of characterizing the LHC operational beam distributions. The results of the measurement campaign demonstrate how heavy tails can be created via coupled resonance excitation of the lattice in the presence of space charge, in accordance with predictions from the fixed line theory. The coupled resonance introduces dependence between the different planes, which persists after the resonance excitation is removed.

        Speaker: Elleanor Lamb (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 58
        Monte Carlo modeling of spin-polarized photoemission from NEA GaAs with low-temperature and strained-lattice effects

        GaAs-based photocathodes activated to negative electron affinity (NEA) is the only existing technology that can deliver intense and highly spin-polarized electron beams for the forthcoming Electron-Ion Collider as well as enable spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, ultrafast spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction, and other cutting-edge experiments. The degree of spin-polarization of electrons photoemitted from unstrained GaAs is usually considerably less than the theoretical maximum of 50%. However, it has been experimentally observed that the degree of electron spin polarization can be increased and even exceed the theoretical maximum when the sample is cooled to low temperatures. Additionally, in strained lattice samples, the theoretical maximum of spin polarization increases to 100%. The previously developed Monte Carlo approach to spin-polarized photoemission from unstrained, room temperature NEA GaAs provides excellent agreement with experimental data in a wide range of doping densities and photoexcitation energies. This study aims to extend the model’s capabilities by incorporating both low-temperature and strained-lattice effects into the band structure and exploring their impact on spin and momentum relaxation mechanisms. Modeling of both low-temperature and strained NEA GaAs will provide a foundation for modeling photoemission from novel spin-polarized materials and complex layered structures.

        Speaker: John Callahan (Northern Illinois University)
      • 59
        Multicell dielectric disk acceleraing structure high power experiment results

        A Dielectric Disk Accelerator (DDA) is a metallic accelerating structure loaded with dielectric disks to increase its shunt impedance. These structures use short RF pulses of 9 ns to achieve accelerating gradients of more than 100 MV/m. Single cell and multicell clamped structures have been designed and high power tested at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. During testing, the single cell clamped DDA structure achieved an accelerating gradient of 102 MV/m with no visible damage in the RF volume region. The minimal damage that was seen outside the RF volume was likely due to RF leakage from uneven clamping during assembly. Based on the success of that experiment, a clamped multicell DDA structure has been designed and tested at high power. Simulation results for this new structure show a 108 MV/m accelerating gradient with 400 MW of input power with high shunt impedance and group velocity. Engineering designs were improved from the single cell structure for a more consistent clamping over the entire structure. Up to this point in the high power experiments, the results show a peak input power of 222 MW correlating to an accelerating gradient of 80 MV/m. Testing of this structure will continue January 2024.

        Speaker: Sarah Weatherly (Illinois Institute of Technology)
      • 60
        Normalized uniformity-based common points layout optimization method for alignment installations

        The alignment installation work of Hefei Advanced Light Facility (HALF) is usually carried out in tunnels. We convert the coordinates of the landmark points to the global coordinate system through coordinate transformation, and accurately adjust them to the corresponding coordinate values for alignment and installation. However, tunnels are often long and narrow, which can easily lead to ill-conditioned normal equations and loss of accuracy when solving coordinate transformation parameters. Therefore, to quickly and accurately obtain the coordinate transformation parameters, this paper proposes a common point selection method based on uniformity division space, which divides the coordinate transformation space according to the uniformity in different directions to select the optimal common points combination, and uses simulation and measured data to verify the method in this article. The results show that the conversion parameters solved by this method are more accurate and more stable, avoiding accuracy loss due to aggregation in a certain direction, and are suitable for narrow and long layout scenarios.

        Speaker: Ting Ding (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 61
        Novel high-intensity X and Gamma-rays sources using crystals

        The research is focused on finding new ways to generate high-intensity, monochromatic X and gamma-rays, surpassing the capabilities of existing methods. While Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) have limitations on photon energy, and Inverse Compton Scattering relies on powerful lasers, the search for alternatives continues. TECHNO-CLS, a PATHFINDER project funded by the European Innovation Council, is dedicated to crafting innovative gamma-ray Light Sources (LSs), utilizing linear, bent, or periodically bent crystals. Similar to magnetic undulators, crystals leverage a strong interplanar electrostatic field to prompt particle oscillation, resulting in electromagnetic radiation. By reducing the oscillation period to sub-mm dimensions, these undulators can produce tens of MeV in photon energy when exposed to GeV electron beams*. As a passive and sustainable element, CLSs show great promise. In the initial phase of the project, we identified techniques to realize CLSs, using alternated pattern deposition on silicon, using simulation to optimize the pattern and conducted experiments at CERN PS with Tungsten and Iridium crystals.

        Speaker: Riccardo Negrello (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 62
        Novel positron beam generation based on Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source

        The Shanghai Light Source has been operated since 2009 to provide synchrotron radiation to 40 beamlines of the electron storage ring at a fixed electron energy of 3.5 GeV. The Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source (SLEGS) is approved to produce energy-tunable gamma rays in the inverse Compton slant-scattering of 100 W CO2 laser on the 3.5 GeV electrons as well as in the back-scattering. SLEGS can produce gamma rays in the energy range of 0.66 – 21.7 MeV with flux of 1e+5 – 1e+7 photons/s*.
        A positron source based on SLEGS is designed to produce positron beams in the energy range of 3 – 16 MeV with a flux of 1e+5 /s and energy resolution of ~7% with an aperture of 10 mm collimator. The positron generated has been simulated by GEANT4, uses a SLEGS gamma injected into a single-layer target, and a dipole magnet deflect positrons. Based on the energy-tunable SLEGS gamma rays, the optimized parameters at each gamma energy were simulated to obtain an energy-tunable positron source.
        We have confirmed positron generation in the commissioning. We plan to construct the positron source in the summer of 2024. We present the positron source based on results of simulation and test measurements.

        Speaker: Sheng Jin (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 63
        Numerical methods for emittance computation from luminosity

        The beam transverse emittances play a critical role in high-energy colliders. Various measurement techniques are employed to measure them. In particular, the so-called luminosity emittance scans (or Van der Meer scans) are used in order to evaluate the convoluted beam emittances. This method assumes different emittances in the two planes but identical emittances in the two beams. In this paper, we propose an approach to remove this constraint. After having presented the new measurement protocol, we will discuss its potential and limits, including the statistical measurement error of the luminosity value as obtained from numerical studies.

        Speaker: Matteo Rufolo (IDSIA Dalla Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence USI-SUPSI)
      • 64
        Optimization of bunch charge distribution for space charge emittance growth compensation in the PERLE injector

        Low energy electron bunches experience emittance growth due to space charge. This effect can lead to large emittances which are unacceptable for a facility like PERLE at IJCLab. PERLE will be an ERL test facility circulating a high current electron beam. The traditional method to reduce emittance due to this effect is already planned for the PERLE injector, this has a limit of how small the emittance can be reduced to. This limit is defined by the quality of the bunch as it is upon production at the cathode. The transverse and longitudinal properties of the laser pulse incident on the cathode defines some characteristics of the bunch, to which the space charge effect is related. In addition, the complex evolution of the bunch along the injector could result in optimal laser parameters which are different from the simple flattop distribution currently simulated. Presented here are simulation-based studies of the bunch charge distribution at the cathode and its subsequent evolution along the injector. An optimization of the laser parameters which create the bunch is also performed. We find that there is an optimal bunch charge shape which corresponds to minimal emittance growth.

        Speaker: Connor Monaghan (The University of Liverpool)
      • 65
        Optimization of cooling distribution of the EIC cooler ERL

        The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) Hadron Storage Ring (HSR) will use strong hadron cooling to maintain the beam brightness and high luminosity during long collision experiments. An Energy Recovery Linac is used to deliver the high-current high-brightness electron beam for cooling. For the best cooling effect, the electron beam requires low emittance, small energy spread, and uniform longitudinal distribution. In this work, we simulate and optimize the longitudinal laser-beam distribution shaping at the photo-cathode, modeling space charge forces accurately. Machine parameters such as RF cavity phases are optimized in conjunction with the beam distribution using a genetic optimizer. We demonstrate the improvement to the cooling distribution in key parameters.

        Speaker: Ningdong Wang (Cornell University)
      • 66
        Optimization of ELSA electron beam transport for its inverse Compton scattering X-ray source

        ELSA LINCS (ELSA Linac INverse Compton Source) at CEA DAM DIF is an Inverse Compton Scattering X-ray source in the 5-40 keV range, through interaction between 10-30 MeV electrons with a Nd:YAG laser. The source was upgraded to increase the X-ray flux produced in the 5-40 keV range. The new experimental setup and imaging systems have been modified for compatibility with fundamental emission at 1064 nm and for better mechanical stability. The upgrade also includes installation of a new RF linearizing cavity before magnetic compression, to improve bunch compression. Experimental optimization of the beam transport has been achieved, relying on recent detailed simulation work. Results taking advantage of this optimization are presented: achieved bunch duration, emittance, dimension at interaction point, for several electron energies and several bunch charges between 50 pC up to 1 nC. Comparisons with simulations provide an insight about major contributions to emittance growth. Achievable X-ray flux through Inverse Compton Scattering and applications are discussed.

        Speaker: Abel Pires (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives)
      • 67
        Optimization of laser coupling into optically field ionized plasma channels for laser-plasma acceleration

        Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) can have high acceleration gradients on the order of 100 GeV/m. The high acceleration gradients of LPAs offer the possibility of powering future colliders at the TeV range and reducing the size of particle accelerators at present energy levels. LPAs need tightly focused, high intensity laser pulses and require guiding structures to maintain the laser focus over the optimum acceleration length. It is necessary to match the parameters of the guiding structure and the laser pulse to couple the maximum laser energy into the guiding structure. Optically field ionized (OFI) plasma channels are a guiding structure capable of matching the parameters of the petawatt (PW) laser facility at the Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) Center [1, 2]. We will present results on the optimization of laser coupling into OFI plasma channels on BELLA PW. We will also discuss how optimization of laser coupling relates to upcoming staging experiments on BELLA PW.

        Speaker: Josh Stackhouse (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 68
        Optimization of nanostructured plasmas for laser wakefield acceleration using a Bayesian algorithm

        Nanostructures are currently attracting attention as a medium for obtaining ultra-high-density plasmas for beam-driven or laser-driven acceleration. This study investigates Bayesian optimization in Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) to enhance solid-state plasma parameters towards achieving extremely high gradients on the order of TV/m or beyond, specifically focusing on nanostructured plasmas based on arrays of carbon nanotubes. Through Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations via EPOCH and custom Python scripts, we conducted a parameter analysis for various configurations of carbon nanotube arrays. Utilizing the open-source machine learning library BoTorch for optimization, our work resulted in a detailed database of simulation results. This enabled us to pinpoint optimal parameters for generating effective wakefields in these specialized plasmas. Ultimately, the results demonstrate that Bayesian optimization is an excellent tool for significantly refining parameter selection for nanostructures like carbon nanotube arrays, thus enabling the design of promising nanostructures for LWFA.

        Speaker: Juan Rodríguez Pérez (Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de los Materiales)
      • 69
        Optimizations and updates of the FCC-ee collimation system

        The Future Circular electron-positron Collider, FCC-ee, is a design study for a 90 km circumference luminosity-frontier and highest-energy e+e- collider. It foresees four operation modes optimized for producing different particles by colliding high-brightness lepton beams. Operating such a machine presents unique challenges, including stored beam energies up to 17.5 MJ, a value about two orders of magnitude higher than any lepton collider to date. Given the high stored beam energy, unavoidable beam losses pose a serious risk of damage. Thus, an adequate protection system has to be implemented. To address this challenge, a beam collimation system to protect the sensitive equipment of this machine is indispensable. This paper presents the studies that led to a new collimation system baseline and a collimation performance evaluation under selected beam loss scenarios.

        Speaker: Giacomo Broggi (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 70
        Optimizations for ultrafast electron diffraction with a cryogenic C-band gun

        Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is a growing accelerator application that enables the study of transient material processes at sub-picosecond timescales with nanometer spatial resolution. In this proceeding, we present simulations of the Cryogenic Brightness-Optimized Radiofrequency Gun (CYBORG) beamline using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) code that are optimized for the application of UED. We explore advantages of performing UED with a beamline equipped with a low intrinsic emittance photocathode, extraction fields approaching 200 MV/m, and a cathode temperature below 77 K. The electron beam bunch length and the 4D transverse emittance are critical metrics for achieving high spatial and temporal resolution in UED, and are minimized at the sample location in our optimization using a Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II).

        Speaker: Chad Pennington (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 71
        Particles and photon attenuating behavior of lead free Eu3+ doped barium phosphate glass system

        The study investigates the radiation attenuation performance of five ternary glass systems with varying chemical compositions: 50P$_2$O$_5$-(50-x)BaO-xEu$_2$O$_3$, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mol%. It utilizes theoretical and Monte Carlo methods to determine shielding parameters such as attenuation coefficients, mean free path, value layers, electron densities, conductivity and neutron removal cross-sections across an energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. In addition to these analyses, the study explores kinetic energy stopping potentials and projected ranges of ions (H$^{+}$, He$^{+}$, and C$^{+}$) through the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter database. Furthermore, research evaluates the dose rate attenuation behavior and trajectories of photons bombarded from $^{137}$Cs and $^{60}$Co sources using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System. Obtained results show that sample: 50P$_2$O$_5$-44BaO-6Eu$_2$O$_3$ with higher Eu$^{3+}$-doped glass has a potential for radiation shielding application among selected samples and is comparable with previously recommended, tested polymer and glass samples.

        Speaker: Devendra Upadhyay (Tribhuvan University)
      • 72
        Performance optimization design of photocathode injector based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

        Generating beam with nC-level charge is of great significance for particle colliders. In order to achieve lower emittance and length of bunch, based on the photocathode injector, we designed a L-band gun and L-band accelerating tube. However, with many coupled parameters, it is difficult to optimize its performance to the limit when optimizing them separately. Therefore, we employed a multi-objective genetic algorithm for searching in the multi-dimensional parameter space and utilized a deep Gaussian process as a surrogate model to solve the high-dimensional parameter optimization problem. Through optimization, we successfully obtained the normalized transverse emittance of 3.4 π mm·mrad and the bunch length of 1.0 mm for a fixed charge of 5 nC. This indicates that our method can effectively improve the performance of the photocathode injector.

        Speaker: Zheng Sun (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 73
        Picometer scale emittance from plasmonic spiral photocathode for particle accelerator applications

        In this work we demonstrate the generation of a record low root mean square normalized transverse electron emittance of less than 30 pm-rad from a flat metal photocathode – more than an order of magnitude lower than the best the emittance that has been achieved from a flat photocathode. This was achieved by using plasmonic focusing of light to a sub-diffraction regime using plasmonic Archimedean spiral structures resulting in a ~40 nm root mean square electron emission spot. Such nanostructured electron sources exhibiting simultaneous spatio-temporal confinement to nanometer and femtosecond level along with a low mean transverse energy can be used for developing advanced electron sources to generate unprecedented electron beam brightness for various accelerator applications.

        Speaker: Alimohammed Kachwala (Arizona State University)
      • 74
        Preliminary design consideration for CEPC fast luminosity feedback system

        With very small beam sizes at IP (several tens of nanometers in the vertical direction) and the presence of strong FFS quadrupoles in the CEPC, the luminosity is very sensitive to the mechanical vibrations, requiring excellent control over the two colliding beams to ensure an optimum geometrical overlap between them and thereby maximize the luminosity. Fast luminosity measurements and an IP orbit feedback system are therefore essential. In this paper, we will show the preliminary design consideration for a fast luminosity feedback system at CEPC.

        Speaker: Meng Li (Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 75
        Pulsed Compton Gamma-ray beam generation using pulsed FEL beam

        For certain photonuclear experiments utilizing Compton gamma-ray beams, beam-uncorrelated background poses a significant challenge. At the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS), we have developed methods to generate pulsed free-electron laser (FEL) beams by transversely or longitudinally modulating the storage ring FEL. Both methods enable periods of FEL interaction: one by transversely manipulating the electron beam orbit, the other by de-synchronizing the electron and FEL beams. The recently-developed longitudinal method has proven superior: it avoids beam loss and is applicable across a wide range of electron beam energies. In this work, we describe the operational principle of pulsed FEL beam generation using longitudinal modulation, and we present measurements of the macro- and micro-temporal structure of the FEL beam. Furthermore, we present experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of using a pulsed gamma-ray beam to reduce beam background.

        Speaker: Stepan Mikhailov (Duke University)
      • 76
        Searching for the best initial beam parameters for efficient muon ionization cooling

        Ionization cooling stands as the only cooling technique capable of efficiently reducing the phase space of a muon beam within a short time frame. The optimal cooling parameters of a muon collider aim to minimize transverse emittance while simultaneously limiting longitudinal emittance growth, resulting in optimal luminosities within the collider ring. This study shows that achieving efficient cooling performance requires selecting the best initial muon beam parameters. Because for every transvere emittance there exist an optimal beam energy for ionization cooling. We present a technique that enables the determination of these optimal initial parameters through simulations and compare them with an improved analytical scattering model.

        Speaker: Bernd Stechauner (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 77
        Simulating a rectilinear cooling channel using BDSIM for the 6D muon cooling demonstrator

        Muon colliders hold promise for high luminosity multi-TeV collisions, without synchrotron radiation challenges. However, this involves investigation into novel methods of muon production, acceleration, cooling, storage, and detection. Thus, a cooling demonstrator has been proposed to investigate 6D muon ionization cooling. The MICE experiment validated ionization cooling to reduce transverse emittance. The demonstrator will extend this to also cool longitudinal emittance. It would also use bunched beams instead of single particles from a muon source. The 6D cooling lattice comprises successive cells which consist of: solenoids for tight focusing, dipoles to introduce dispersion in the beam, wedge-shaped absorbers for differential beam absorption, and RF cavities for reacceleration. In this paper, the simulation and further optimization of the rectilinear cooling channel is discussed. This analysis extends existing theoretical and numerical work using BDSIM, a Geant4-based accelerator framework built to simulate the transport and interaction of particles. The study also incorporates beams from existing proton drivers, using output from targetry and capture designs for the same.

        Speaker: Rohan Kamath (Imperial College London)
      • 78
        Simulating the transverse probing of laser-driven plasma wakefields using ultrarelativistic electrons

        Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are capable of supporting accelerating and focusing forces on the order of 10–100 GeV/m, about three orders of magnitude greater than conventional RF accelerators. While theoretical solutions for the electromagnetic (EM) focusing fields have been developed, the field structures have yet to be verified experimentally. In this poster, we present simulation results for transverse probing of laser wakefields using ultrarelativistic electrons. We study the behavior of the probing electrons by implementing filtering masks to investigate focusing characteristics of thin electron "bands". The deflection of these bands after propagating through the wakefield is then used to characterize the EM forces. The simulated focusing behavior of these electron bands is in reasonable agreement with a theoretical model developed based on a thin lens model of the wakefield. Simulation results show the focusing of the bands to be an effective experimental diagnostic for verifying the EM field structure. This provides an analytic framework needed for the first direct measurements of focusing forces in an LWFA at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

        Speaker: Evan Trommer (Stony Brook University)
      • 79
        Simulation of coupled space charge and wakefield effects for a prototype TW-gun at SwissFEL

        In the injector section of electron linacs, both internal space charge forces and wakefield effects influence the beam dynamics. So far, existing simulation approaches can not account for both effects simultaneously. To fill this gap, we have developed a computational method to account for both effects self-consistently*. It couples a space charge solver in the rest frame of the bunch with a wakefield solver by means of a scattered field formulation. The novelty of this approach is that it enables us to simulate the creation of wakefields throughout the emission and acceleration process.
        In our contribution, we present extensive studies of the coupled wakefield and space charge effects in a traveling wave electron gun under development at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Wakefields created by the multi-cell design and the transition to the beam pipe are accounted for. Hence, the respective influences of these causes for geometric wakefields on particle dynamics are compared, providing detailed insights into the coupling of wakefields on bunches at low energies. Specifically, uncorrelated energy spread and emittance are investigated which are of key interest for FEL operation.

        Speaker: Jonas Christ (Technische Universität Darmstadt)
      • 80
        Simulation of CXFEL with MITHRA code

        The CXFEL project at ASU will produce coherent soft x-ray radiation at a university-scale facility. Unlike conventional XFELs, the CXFEL will use an optical undulator in addition to nanobunching the electron beam instead of a static magnetic undulator. This reduces the undulator period from cm-scale to micron scale and lowers the requirements on the electron beam energy. CXFEL’s overtaking geometry design reduces the effective undulator period to 7.86 μm to produce 1 keV photons. This is accomplished by crossing the laser and electron beam at a 30 degree overtaking angle, and using a tilted laser pulse front to maintain temporal overlap between the electron beam and laser pulse. The inverse Compton scattering interaction between a microbunched electron beam and an optical undulator falls out of the range of most accelerator codes. We employ MITHRA, a FEL full-wave FDTD solver software package which includes inverse Compton scattering to simulate the FEL lasing process. We have adapted the code to the CXFEL instrument design to simulate the radiation/electron beam interactions and report results of studies including scaling of key parameters.

        Speaker: Elena Ros (Arizona State University)
      • 81
        Simulation of electrom beams from the ELBE superconducting RF gun for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments

        Moving towards beam energies around 2-6 MeV in ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) experiments allows achievement of larger coherence length for better k-space resolution, while the temporal resolution is improved when shorter electron bunches are generated and the velocity mismatch between the optical pump and UED probe is reduced.
        At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a series of superconducting cw RF (SRF) guns has been designed, build, and tested, with the latest version currently in routine operation as one of the electron sources for the ELBE Center for High Power Radiation. This SRF photoinjector produces bunches with a few-MeV energies at up to MHz repetition rates, making it a suitable electron source also for MeV-UED experiments. The high repetition rate provides a significant advantage for the characterization of samples with low scattering cross-sections such as liquids and gases.
        In this paper, we outline the conceptual MeV-UED instrument program under development at HZDR. We also showcase the beam quality achieved in first simulations of the ELBE SRF gun operating at low bunch charge as an electron source for diffraction experiments.

        Speaker: Raffael Niemczyk (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf)
      • 82
        Single-shot meV-resolution hard X-ray spectrograph for CBXFEL diagnostics

        A cavity-based x-ray free-electron laser (CBXFEL) is a possible future direction in the development of fully coherent hard x-ray sources of high spectral brilliance, a narrow spectral bandwidth of ~1-100 meV, and a high repetition rate of ~1 MHz. A diagnostic tool is required to measure CBXFEL spectra with a meV resolution on the shot-to-shot bases. Here we present test results of a single shot hard x-ray angular-dispersive spectrograph designed for this purpose.
        Angular-dispersive x-ray spectrographs are composed of a dispersive element — Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry, a focusing element, and a pixel detector [1]. The CBXFEL spectrograph was designed to image 9.8 keV x-rays in a ~200 meV spectral window with a spectral resolution of a few meV. Two Ge asymmetrically cut crystals in the dispersive 220 Bragg reflection geometry were used as the dispersive element. A compound refractive Be lens was used as the focusing element.
        The spectrograph was built and tested at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM-B. The spectrograph operates close to design specification featuring a 185 meV (FWHM) spectral window of imaging, a 1.4 μm/meV linear dispersion rate, and a spectral resolution of 15 meV estimated with a 40 meV width of the spectral reference benchmark available in the test measurements.

        Speaker: Mr Keshab Kauchha (Argonne National Laboratory)
      • 83
        Studies of space-charge compensation of positive ions by creating time-dependent secondary electrons in low-energy beam transport line

        The space-charge neutralization of an ion beam by created electrons when the beam ionizes the gas is investigated using a three-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell code. Different kinds of injected gases are considered, and their space-charge compensation transient times are compared. The created secondary electrons by the beam collision with neutral gas along the beam trajectories are loaded in the simulation by a Monte Carlo generator, and their space charge contribution is added to the primary beam space charge densities. The injection and accumulation of secondaries are time-dependent and this process is continued until total space charge densities reach a steady state. In this study, a 2.4-meter LEBT line with two solenoid magnets is considered. Usually, the proton beam energy is 25 keV and the current level is around 10-15 mA. Additionally, beam extraction studies are conducted, and the extracted beam is used in both IBSIMU and Tracewin codes for LEBT lines to validate the results.

        Speaker: Emre Cosgun (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)
      • 84
        Study of the radiation field from multiple out-coupling holes in an infrared free electron laser oscillator

        A new infrared Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility FELiChEM has been established as an experimental facility at the University of Science and Technology of China. It consists of two free electron laser oscillators which produce mid-infrared and far-infrared lasers covering the spectral range of 2-200 μm at the present stage. The output power is a crucial parameter for users, and it is usually achieved by an out-coupling hole located in the center of a cavity mirror. Nevertheless, the spectral gap phenomenon has been observed in FEL oscillators with partial waveguides as the output power is highly dependent on the mode configuration before the out-coupling mirror. Such power gaps have an adverse effect on experimental results since numerous experiments require continuous spectral scanning. In this paper, we propose the utilization of multiple out-coupling holes on the cavity mirror, instead of relying solely on a central out-coupling hole, to reduce the adverse impact of the spectral gap phenomenon.

        Speaker: Mengqi Xia (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 85
        Study on high energy coupling efficiency of laser-electron interaction via vortex beam

        Manipulation electron beam phase space technology by laser-electron interaction has been widely used in accelerator-based light sources. The energy of the electron beam can be modulated effectively under resonant conditions by using an intense external laser beam incident into the undulator together with the electron beam.
        Enhancing the modulation efficiency is crucial for the performance of high repetition rate seeded free electron lasers (FELs) and other related devices.
        In this paper, we propose a new scheme to augment the efficiency of laser-electron interaction by employing the interaction between a vortex beam and an electron beam within a helical undulator. Three-dimensional time-dependent simulation results indicate that the modulation repetition rate of laser-electron interaction using a vortex beam can be improved by one order of magnitude over the conventional Gaussian beam at the same input power.

        Speaker: Xiazhen Xu (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 86
        Temporal profile shaping for a dispersive section using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

        The importance of shaping temporal profiles in accelerator physics is highlighted by a wide range of applications, such as plasma acceleration and improved performance in free electron laser applications. In our study, we focus on controlling the dispersion in a bunch compressor and the energy chirp of the beam entering the compressor to achieve diverse temporal profiles. The transmission of electron beams through dispersive regions, like bunch compressors and transport lines, can significantly impact the beam's temporal profile. Failure to rigorously control each component's parameters may result in deviation from the desired beam profile. we propose the application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm to address this one-to-many problem. After multiple optimization iterations, we obtained several feasible solutions for controlling the dispersion section and various energy chirps to achieve desired temporal profile.

        Speaker: Zheng Sun (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 87
        Test of a metamaterial structure for structure-based wakefield acceleration

        Metamaterial accelerators driven by nanosecond-long RF pulses show promise to mitigate RF breakdown. Recent high-power tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) with an X-band metamaterial structure have demonstrated to achieve a gradient of 190 MV/m, while we also observed a new acceleration regime, the breakdown-insensitive acceleration regime (BIAR), where the RF breakdown may not interrupt acceleration of a main beam. Statistical analysis between different breakdown types reveals that the characteristics of the BIAR breakdown are beneficial to high-gradient acceleration at short pulse lengths.

        Speaker: Dillon Merenich (Northern Illinois University)
      • 88
        The design of a 2.3-cell X-band photocathode RF electron gun

        Recent advancements in electron beam compression methods have enabled the production of ultrashort electron beams at the sub-femtosecond scale, significantly expanding their applications. However, the temporal resolution of these beams is primarily limited by the flight time jitter, especially during their generation in photocathode RF electron guns. In this paper, to mitigate the impact of microwave phase jitter on the flight time jitter inside the electron gun, we designed a 2.3-cell X-band electron gun, which enables the electron beams to acquire maximum output energy and minimum in-gun flight time at the same injection phase. Moreover, the tolerance of the cavity's machining errors is assessed and the RF input coupler of this cavity has been designed. Our simulation results indicate that this design provides a solid foundation for further improving the temporal resolution of the electron beam.

        Speaker: Zixin Guo (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 89
        The design of the proton-EDM injection line, from BNL AGS booster

        The proton Electric Dipole Moment (pEDM) storage ring to measure the electric dipole moment of the proton [1] is proposed to be built in the tunnel of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by storage ring EDM (srEDM) Collaboration. We proposed that the AGS Booster to pEDM ring transfer and injection line (BtP) would use the partial portions of the existing BtA (AGS Booster to AGS) transfer line optics. In this practice, both of BtP Clockwise orientation (CW) and Counter-clockwise orientation (CCW) injection line are designed and matched in the hypothesis of a single turn injection scheme. The injecting beam-properties are matched to pEDM ring Twiss functions.

        Speaker: Jonathan Lee (Stony Brook University)
      • 90
        Towards mitigation of challenges in development of high power ISOL targets

        Worldwide Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facilities face growing demand for producing and extracting high-purity exotic radioactive ion beams to serve nuclear physics, astrophysics and medical applications. In this technique, a particle beam interacts with a suitable target material to produce the desired isotopes through a combination of mechanisms like spallation, fragmentation and fission. TRIUMF has the world's highest-power ISOL facility—ISAC, handling 50 kW of proton beam power. The formidable challenge is to suitably handle the power deposited within the target material and maintain it at 2000°C to optimize the diffusion and effusion of the radioactive products. The intricacy of this design requires precise knowledge of the thermal properties of the target material. Typically, a blend of metallic carbide and graphite, these targets exhibit varying porosity and morphology and have effective thermal properties differing from individual constituent elements. To investigate these properties, a combined numerical-experimental approach is employed. This contribution discusses the optimization of target material sample size using numerical tools and outlines the exploration of thermal properties using an experimental apparatus, the Chamber for Heating Investigations (CHI), developed at TRIUMF.

        Speaker: Sundeep Ghosh (TRIUMF)
      • 91
        Towards operating low mean transverse energy alkali antimonide photocathodes at Argonne Cathode Test-stand

        The performance and scientific reach of advanced electron accelerator applications, such as particle colliders, x-ray free electron lasers, and ultrafast electron diffraction, are determined by beam brightness. The beam brightness is constrained by the quality of photocathodes and is associated with low Mean Transverse Energy (MTE) of photoemitted electrons. To meet the requirements for applications demanding a bright electron beam, photocathodes must exhibit ultrasmooth physical and chemical roughness, a long operational lifetime, and robustness under high applied electric fields and laser fluences. In this work, we present the development of an experimental setup for the growth and in-situ characterization of high-quality, low-MTE alkali antimonide photocathodes. Additionally, we describe the modifications made to the Argonne Cathode Test-stand (ACT) at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) Facility, necessary for studying the performance of alkali antimonide photocathodes under real photoinjector conditions.

        Speaker: Tariqul Hasan (Northern Illinois University)
      • 92
        Transfer learning for field emission mitigation in CEBAF SRF cavities

        The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab operates hundreds of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in its two linear accelerators (linacs). Field emission (FE) is an ongoing operational challenge in higher gradient SRF cavities. FE generates high levels of neutron and gamma radiation leading to damaged accelerator hardware and a radiation hazard environment. During machine development periods, we performed gradient scans to record data capturing the relationship between cavity gradients and radiation levels measured throughout the linacs. However, the field emission environment at CEBAF varies considerably over time as the configuration of the radio frequency (RF) gradients changes and due to the changing behavior of field emitters. An artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) approach with transfer learning could be a valuable tool to mitigate FE and lower the radiation levels. In this work, we mainly focus on leveraging the RF trip data gathered during CEBAF operations. We develop a transfer learning-based surrogate model for radiation detector readings given RF cavity gradients to track CEBAF’s changing configuration and environment. Then, we could use the developed model in an optimization process for redistributing the RF gradients within a linac to minimize radiation levels.

        Speaker: Kawser Ahammed (Old Dominion University)
      • 93
        Transport and dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams for radiobiology at the BELLA center

        Laser-driven ion accelerators (LDIAs) are well-suited for radiobiological research on ultra-high dose rate effects due to their high intensity. For this application, a transport system is required to deliver the desired beam intensity and dose distribution while online dosimetry is required due to the inherent shot-to-shot variability of LDIAs. At the BELLA Center's iP2 beamline, we implemented two compact, permanent magnet-based beam transport configurations for delivering 10 or 30 MeV protons to a biological sample, along with a suite of diagnostics used for dosimetry. These diagnostics include multiple integrating current transformers (ICTs) for indirect online dose measurements and calibrated radiochromic films (RCFs) to measure the dose profile and calibrate the ICT dosimetry. Benchmarked Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations of the beamline allow us to predict the dose received by the sample and correct the linear energy transfer (LET)-dependent response of the RCFs. This work not only further establishes the practicality of utilizing LDIAs for radiobiological research but also highlights the BELLA Center's capacity to accommodate further experiments in this domain.

        Speaker: Jared De Chant (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 94
        UV-Soft X-ray betatron radiation characterization from laser-plasma wakefield acceleration

        The spontaneous emission of radiation from relativistic electrons within a plasma channel is called betatron radiation and has great potential to become a compact x-ray source in the future. We present an analysis of the performance of a broad secondary radiation source based on a high-gradient laser-plasma wakefield electron accelerator. The purpose of this study is to assess the possibility of having a new source for a non-destructive X-ray phase contrast imaging and tomography of heterogeneous materials. We report studies of compact and UV-soft X ray generation via betatron oscillations in plasma channel and in particular measurement of the radiation spectrum emitted from electron beam is analyzed from a grazing incident monochromator at Centro de Laseres Pulsados Ultraintensos (CLPU).

        Speaker: Daniele Francescone (Sapienza University of Rome)
      • 95
        Various methods for computing dominant spin-orbit resonance strengths in storage rings

        The strength of a first-order spin-orbit resonance is defined as the amplitude of the corresponding Fourier component of the spin-precession vector. However, it is possible to obtain the resonance strength without computing the Fourier integral directly. If a resonance is sufficiently strong, then to a good approximation, one can neglect all other depolarizing effects when near the resonance. Such an approximation leads to the single resonance model (SRM), for which many aspects of spin motion are analytically solvable. In this paper, we calculate the strength of first-order resonances using various formulae derived from the SRM, utilizing spin tracking data, the direction of the invariant spin field, and jumps in the amplitude-dependent spin tune. Examples are drawn from the RHIC Blue ring.

        Speaker: Joseph Devlin (Cornell University (CLASSE))
    • Student Poster Session: SUPG Bluegrass (MCC Exhibit Hall A)


      MCC Exhibit Hall A

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

      Round 1 poster judging: 2pm - 4pm
      Round 2 poster judging: 4pm - 6pm

      Convener: Kiersten Ruisard (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 96
        3D beam tracking studies including intrabeam scattering

        Particle tracking serves as a computational technique for determining the mean field of dynamically tracked charged macroparticles of a particle beam within an accelerator. Conventional solver tend to neglect collisionality, resulting in loss of relevant information (particle and momentum redistribution). In this study, macro-particle collisions are incorporated into a 3D Poisson solver. In the previous studies, identifying close particles have been performed in a static condition (IPAC23-Macroparticle collisionality in PIC solver). The requirement to uphold energy momentum within a dynamic tracking is initiated in simple lattices and the results are presented. A comparison with analytic model of the Bjorken-Mtingwa or Conte-Martini is included to verify.

        Speaker: Alexander Engeda (Goethe Universität Frankfurt)
      • 97
        A large momentum acceptance gantry for light-weight proton therapy facility: its beam lattice, magnets design and clinical advantages

        As one of the state-of-the-art radiotherapy approaches, proton therapy possesses conformal dose profiles yet expensive cost. Designing a facility with a small footprint and a high treatment efficiency is the main goal for researchers to fulfill the potential of proton therapy and make it more affordable both for vendors and patients. In this contribution, the design of a light-weight proton therapy gantry based on the alternating-gradient canted-cosine-theta (AG-CCT) super-conducting (SC) magnet is presented. The AG-CCT magnets adopt large bores and combined function design. With fine field harmonic control and fringe field shape optimization of the magnets, the multi-particle tracking results prove that the gantry achieves a momentum acceptance of ±8%. So that the full energy range from 70 to 230 MeV can be covered with merely 3 field switch points. Combined with a fast degrader component, whose switch time is below 50 ms, the energy modulation speed can be greatly fastened. To fully utilize the advantages of the large momentum acceptance gantry, the energy spread of the proton beam is expanded and a reduced treatment plan is proposed. Compared with the standard treatment plan, the energy layers number of a prostate case is reduced by 61.3% with comparable plan quality. In summary, the proposed gantry has significant superiority both in manufacture and clinical aspects.

        Speaker: Yicheng Liao (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
      • 98
        A wireless method for beam coupling impedance bench measurement of resonant structures

        The Beam Coupling Impedance (BCI) is a crucial aspect in the realm of accelerator physics, as it describes the electromagnetic interactions between charged particle beams and the accelerator structure. The measurement and quantification of BCI is an essential requirement to assess and mitigate its impact, particularly when introducing new components or addressing problems within existing devices. The stretched Wire Method (WM) is a well-established technique for BCI evaluations, although with well-known limitations. These are particularly prominent when dealing with cavity-like structures. In that case, the estimates obtained below the cut-off frequency of the beam pipe can be inaccurate. It is worth noting that this frequency range is particularly relevant for many accelerator applications. To overcome these well-recognized limitations, a different bench measurement technique has been identified and thoroughly examined. This novel approach has been subjected to comprehensive testing in both virtual and real measurements, with a particular focus on a pillbox cavity.

        Speaker: Chiara Antuono (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 99
        Advancing non-linear space charge simulations: neural networks and analytical approaches

        This study explores various neural network approaches for simulating beam dynamics, with a particular focus on non-linear space charge effects. We introduce a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture that incorporates skip connections to predict transversal electric fields. The model demonstrates robust performance, achieving a root mean squared error (RMSE) of $0.5\%$ within just a few minutes of training. Furthermore, this paper explores the feasibility of replacing traditional ellipsoidal methods with Gaussian envelope models for improved non-linear space-charge calculations. Our findings indicate that these advancements could provide a more efficient alternative to numerical space-charge methods in beam dynamics simulations.

        Speaker: Isabella Vojskovic (European Spallation Source ERIC)
      • 100
        AGS Booster model calibration and digital-twin development

        An accurate physics simulation model is key to accelerator operation because all beam control and optimization algorithms require good understanding of the accelerator and its elements. For the AGS Booster, discrepancies between the real physical system and online simulation model have been a long-standing issue. Due to the lack of a reliable model, the current practice of beam control relies mainly on empirical tuning by experienced operators, which may be inefficient or sub-optimal. In this work, we investigate two main factors that can cause discrepancies between simulation and reality in the AGS Booster: magnet misalignments and magnet transfer functions. We developed a orbit response measurement script that collects real machine data in the Booster for model calibration. By matching simulated data with real data, we can develop a more accurate simulation model for future polarization optimizations, and build the foundation for a fully functional digital-twin.

        Speaker: Weijian Lin (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 101
        Analysis of laser engineered surface structures’ roughness and surface impedance

        This study examines Laser Engineered Surface Structures (LESS) in the context of their potential application within particle accelerators. These structures are investigated due to their efficient reduction of secondary electron yield to counteract the formation of electron clouds, a phenomenon detrimental to accelerator performance. A critical aspect of their evaluation involves understanding their radio-frequency characteristics to determine their influence on beam impedance.
        LESS involves intricate surface modifications, integrating etched grooves and deposited particulates, resulting in a complex surface topology. Measurements are conducted on two distinct surface patterns, from which particulates are then removed with incremental cleaning. Acquired data form the basis for mathematical models elucidating observed results.
        Novel approaches are investigated in addition to several established surface roughness models, including analysis of geometrical attributes of the surface topology and the associated electric currents. The aim is to develop a framework that describes roughness's influence across varying scales to assist in selecting appropriate treatment parameters.

        Speaker: Patrick Krkotic (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 102
        Autofocusing accelerator beams

        A novel tuning approach, Model Coupled Accelerator Tuning (MCAT), has been applied to the separated function DTL at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC). A digital twin of the rare-isotope postaccelerator is used for transverse and longitudinal tune optimizations, which are then loaded directly into the control system. Beam-based testing produced accelerated beam with a 0.26% error in output energy, with a 1.6% energy spread. This method significantly reduces the operational complexity of tuning interventions, rendering them more efficient. An analysis of the high energy beam lines (HEBT) is also presented, including analysis of dispersive couplings in certain sections of the beamline. A mitigation strategy involving buncher cavities is discussed.

        Speaker: Alexander Katrusiak (TRIUMF)
      • 103
        Automation upgrade of the CXLS photoinjector

        The automation upgrade of the photoinjector for the Compact X-Ray Light Source (CXLS) at Arizona State University is described. As the accelerator vault of the CXLS is only 10 meters long, the photoinjector drive laser is located in an enclosure inside the vault. Since ionizing radiation is present in this room during operations, it necessitates remote control of all devices used to optimize the laser spot. This includes multiple shutters, Galil motors, picomotors, a mirror flipper, LEDs, and remote lens controllers. To actuate these devices, a GUI was created with the use of MATLAB AppDesigner which communicates with the hardware through EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Challenges with this GUI are described, along with the team’s efforts to finalize the control software. After these upgrades, the photoinjector laser characteristics can be adjusted remotely during operation and changes to the drive laser’s position, shape, and intensity can be made without interrupting beam time.

        Speaker: Taryn Brown (Arizona State University)
      • 104
        Bayesian optimization for beam centroid correction at ISAC

        Beam tuning in a post-accelerator facility such as TRIUMF’s ISAC involves a considerable amount of overhead and often leads to tunes which diverge from the theoretical optimum for the system, introducing undesirable effects such as aberrations or chromatic couplings. Bayesian Optimization for Ion Steering (BOIS) has been developed and tested to perform centroid corrective steering, after the transverse optics have been set to theory, in a method which is fully online and easy to deploy. Naïve multi-objective adaptations, scaleBOIS and boundBOIS have been introduced to perform corrective transverse steering with minimal transverse fields . Tests in the low-energy electrostatic transport beamlines at ISAC I performed comparably to human operators. This work holds promise for enhancing the efficiency and reliability of beam delivery via autonomous tuning methods, supporting TRIUMF's scientific mission.

        Speaker: Emma Ghelfi (TRIUMF)
      • 105
        Bayesian optimization scheme for the design of a nanofibrous high power target

        High Power Targetry (HPT) R&D is critical in the context of increasing beam intensity and energy for next generation accelerators. Many target concepts and novel materials are being developed and tested for their ability to withstand extreme beam environments; the HPT R&D Group at Fermilab is developing an electrospun nanofiber material for this purpose.
        The performance of these nanofiber targets is sensitive to their construction parameters, such as the packing density of the fibers. Lowering the density improves the survival of the target, but reduces the secondary particle yield. Optimizing the lifetime and production efficiency of the target poses an interesting design problem, and in this paper we study the applicability of Bayesian optimization to its solution.
        We first describe how to encode the nanofiber target design problem as the optimization of an objective function, and how to evaluate that function with computer simulations. We then explain the optimization loop setup. Thereafter, we present the optimal design parameters suggested by the algorithm, and close with discussions of limitations and future refinements.

        Speaker: William Asztalos (Illinois Institute of Technology)
      • 106
        Beam studies using a Cherenkov diffraction based beam position monitor for AWAKE

        A beam position monitor based on Cherenkov diffraction radiation (ChDR) is being investigated as a way to disentangle the signals generated by the electromagnetic fields of a short-pulse electron bunch from a long proton bunch co-propagating in the AWAKE plasma acceleration experiment at CERN. These ChDR BPMs have undergone renewed testing under a variety of beam conditions with proton and electron bunches in the AWAKE common beamline, at 3 different frequency ranges between 20-110 GHz to quantify the effectiveness of discriminating the electron beam position with and without proton bunches present. These results indicate an increased sensitivity to the electron beam position in the highest frequency bands. Furthermore, high frequency studies investigating the proton bunch spectrum show that a much higher frequency regime is needed to exclude the proton signal than previously expected.

        Speaker: Bethany Spear (John Adams Institute)
      • 107
        Beam tomography using MCMC

        Beam tomography is a method to reconstruct the higher dimensional beam from its lower dimensional projections. Previous methods to reconstruct the beam required large computer memory for high resolution; others needed differential simulations, and others did not consider beam elements' coupling. This work develops a 4D reconstruction using Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

        Speaker: Anthony Tran (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University)
      • 108
        Buffered chemical polishing process for SHINE 3.9 GHz cavities

        The linear acceleration part of the SHINE project consists of two 3rd harmonic cryogenic modules which are operating at 3.9 GHz. Each of the cryomodules consists of eight 3.9 GHz 9-cell superconducting cavities. The SHINE specifications of the 3.9 GHz cavities are Qo >2.0e+9@13.1 MV/m and maximum accelerating gradient >15 MV/m. The 3.9 GHz cavities were treated with buffered chemical polishing (BCP) baseline combined with 2-step low-temperature baking surface treatment process to meet the specifications. In order to achieve the required performance, the BCP process had been optimized at the SHINE Wuxi surface treatment platform, especially the acid ratio. Vertical tests of all 3.9 GHz bare cavities treated with the optimized BCP process showed Qo up to 3.0e+9@13.1 MV/m and maximum accelerating gradient over 20 MV/m. The optimized BCP process applied to the 3.9 GHz cavities and related vertical test results were presented in this paper.

        Speaker: Zheng Wang (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 109
        Bunch-by-bunch simulations of beam-beam driven particle losses in the LHC

        Recent experimental measurements in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have shown a clear correlation between beam-beam resonance driving terms and beam losses, with a characteristic bunch-by-bunch signature. This observation creates interesting conditions to study diffusive processes. Over the past few decades, early chaos indicators, frequency map analysis and dynamic aperture studies have been commonly used to study particle stability in circular machines. However, the underlying mechanisms driving particles to large amplitudes in the presence of high order resonances is still an open question. Leveraging on years of development on particle tracking tools, this paper presents full-fledged 6-dimensional bunch-by-bunch beam loss simulations in the LHC. The computed loss rates are shown to be in agreement with experimental observations from LHC Run 3.

        Speaker: Philippe Belanger (University of British Columbia & TRIUMF)
      • 110
        Characterization of meter-scale Bessel beams for plasma formation in a plasma wakefield accelerator

        A large challenge with Plasma Wakefield Acceleration lies in creating a plasma with a profile and length that properly match the electron beam. Using a laser-ionized plasma source provides control in creating an appropriate plasma density ramp. Additionally, using a laser-ionized plasma allows for an accelerator to run at a higher repetition rate. At the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, we ionize hydrogen gas with a 225 mJ, 50 fs, 800 nm laser pulse that passes through an axicon lens, imparting a conical phase on the pulse that produces a focal spot with an intensity distribution described radially by a Bessel function. This paper overviews the diagnostic tests used to characterize and optimize the focal spot along the meter-long focus. In particular, we observe how wavefront aberrations in the laser pulse impact the peak intensity of the focal spot. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of nonlinear effects caused by a 6 mm, CaF2 vacuum window in the laser beam line.

        Speaker: Travis Nichols (California Polytechnic State University)
      • 111
        Commissioning and experiments with a compact transverse deflecting system at FLUTE

        A Compact Transverse Deflecting System (Compact-TDS) designed for longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics in the femtosecond regime is presently undergoing commissioning at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This technique, based on THz streaking using a resonator structure, demands a high level of electron beam controllability and stability at the micrometer scale. To meet these requirements, the linear accelerator FLUTE (Ferninfrarot Linac- Und Test-Experiment) has undergone major upgrades in 2023, incorporating a new RF system equipped with a klystron, RF photoinjector and solenoid magnet.
        In this contribution, we present first experiments conducted with the Compact-TDS at FLUTE, utilizing the upgraded RF setup.

        Speaker: Matthias Nabinger (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
      • 112
        Comparison of WarpX and GUINEA-PIG for electron positron collisions

        As part of the Snowmass'21 planning exercise, the Advanced Accelerator Concepts community proposed developing multi-TeV linear colliders and considered beam-beam effects for these machines [1]. Such colliders operate under a high disruption regime with an enormous number of electron-positron pairs produced from QED effects. Thus, it requires a self-consistent treatment of the fields produced by the pairs, which is not implemented in state-of-the-art beam-beam codes such as GUINEA-PIG. WarpX is a parallel, open-source, and portable particle-in-cell code with an active developer community that models QED processes with photon and pair generation in relativistic laser-beam interactions [2]. However, its application to beam-beam collisions has yet to be fully explored. In this work, we benchmark the luminosity spectra, photon spectra, and the recently implemented pair production processes from WarpX against GUINEA-PIG in ultra-tight collisions, and ILC scenarios. This is followed by a run-time comparison to demonstrate the speed-up advantage of WarpX. Ultimately, this work ensures a more robust modeling approach to electron-positron collisions, with the goal of scaling up to 15 TeV.

        Speaker: Mr Bao Nguyen (Imperial College of Science and Technology)
      • 113
        Comprehensive modeling of Siberian Snakes in BNL’s AGS: symplectic tracking and optical compensation

        Meaningful prediction and enhancement of spin-polarization in the RHIC/EIC accelerator complex relies on accurate modeling of each sub-component. Here we describe a symplectic field approximations of both Siberian Snakes in the AGS, enabling practical long-term tracking calculations. Without such symplectic representations, particle motion destabilizes very quickly close to injection energy. This optical instability manifests in $O(10^3)$ turns, and makes dynamic aperture smaller than realistic emittances. Combined with optimization using the Bmad toolkit, we implement steering and optical corrections of the snake effects at 80 distinct energies from injection to extraction, mimicking the measured lattice conditions at each energy. This process unveils unforeseen snake distortions of the vertical dispersion near injection energy, which are addressed. By interpolating between such optimized lattice configurations, Bmad's tracking capabilities allow advanced simulation of polarization transmission through the full AGS cycle.

        Speaker: Eiad Hamwi (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 114
        Current status of MINIBEE: minibeam beamline for preclinical experiments on spatial fractionation in the FLASH regime

        In vivo studies support that the combination of protons and spatial fractionation, the so-called proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBT), enhances the protection of normal tissue for a given tumor dose. A preclinical pMBT facility for small animal irradiation at the 68 MeV cyclotron of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) will improve the understanding of this method. A two-step energy-degrading system will first define the maximum energy of the beam and further degrading will occur before the target forming a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), if necessary. Beam size and divergence will be adjusted by slit systems before a 90-degree magnet bending the beam into the experimental room. At the current stage, a magnetic quadrupole triplet placed close to the target demagnifies the beam by a factor of ~5. The goal is to generate a magnetically focused minibeam of 50 micrometer sigma. Scanning magnets will enable a raster-scan application in the tumor. Conventional dose rate delivery will be allowed while FLASH applications can be achieved with the possible use of a ridge filter. The results of beamline simulations by TRACE-3D and BDSIM will be presented.

        Speaker: Aikaterini Rousseti (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen)
      • 115
        CXLS ionizing and laser radiation safety interlock systems

        The Compact X-ray Light Source (CXLS) requires the acceleration of electron bunches to relativistic energies, which collide with focused IR laser pulses to produce X-rays which are then transported to the experiment hutch. A class 4 UV laser is used at the photocathode to liberate the electrons that are generated via the photoelectric effect. During electron acceleration bremsstrahlung radiation (gamma and neutron) is generated through electron interactions with solid matter. In the experiment hutch the X-rays then interact with the sample under test in pump-probe configuration where the pump laser is another class 4 laser with a wide spectral range from deep UV to THz. Interlock systems have been designed and deployed to protect users of the facility from exposure to these ionizing and laser radiation hazards. We present the design architecture of CXLS interlock systems. In this description we make clear what systems are independent, and which are interdependent and what administrative override modes are made available and why. We also provide an overview of our monthly interlock system testing protocols and conclude with comments on overall system performance.

        Speaker: Eric Everett (Arizona State University)
      • 116
        Dark current simulations in accelerating structures operating with short RF pulses

        The attainable acceleration gradient in normal conducting RF accelerating structure is limited by RF breakdown, a major challenge in high gradient operation. Some of the recent experiments at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility suggest the possibility of breakdown mitigation by using short RF pulses (on the order of a few nanoseconds) to drive the accelerating structures. To understand the physics of RF breakdown on a nanosecond time scale, we simulated the dark current in few accelerating structures in both long-pulse and short-pulse regimes comparatively, and studied multiple potential breakdown initiators, including field emission and multipacting. Our simulations suggest the potential of a class of accelerators designed to work in the short-pulse regime.

        Speaker: Gaurab Rijal (Northern Illinois University)
      • 117
        Decoupling of nitrogen and oxygen impurities in nitrogen doped SRF cavities

        The performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities is critical to enabling the next generation of efficient, high-energy particle accelerators. Recent developments have focused on altering the surface impurity profile through in-situ baking, furnace baking, and doping to introduce and diffuse beneficial impurities such as nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon. However, the precise role and properties of each impurity are not well understood. In this work, we attempt to disentangle the role of oxygen and nitrogen impurities through time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of niobium samples baked at temperatures varying from 75-800°C with and without nitrogen injection. From these results, we developed treatments recipe that decouple the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in doping treatments. Understanding how these impurities and their underlying mechanisms drive further optimization in the tailoring of impurity profiles for high performing SRF cavities.

        Speaker: Hannah Hu (University of Chicago)
      • 118
        Design of a 3-cell rectangular deflecting cavity for a compact THz-FEL

        Bunch length is an important parameter for free-electron laser (FEL). The deflecting RF cavity was used in the beam length diagnostic instrument. In this paper, we present the design of a 3-cell rectangular deflecting RF cavity for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) facility. The 3-cell deflecting cavity has a residual orbit offset of zero as compared to single-cell deflecting cavity. Rectangular deflecting cavity does not need to lock the dipole polarisation direction as compared to cylindrical cavity. The time resolution of the measurement system can reach 500 fs. In this paper, the cavity design is carried out using CST and the results of cavity analysis are presented. Particle tracking is performed with the Astra code and the space charge effect is taken into account.

        Speaker: Ruiying Luo (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
      • 119
        Design of an X-band parallel-coupled travelling-wave accelerating structure for future linacs

        As compared to conventional travelling-wave (TW) structures, parallel-coupled accelerating structures eliminate the requirement for the coupling between cells, providing greater flexibility in optimizing the shape of cells. Each cell is independently fed by a periodic feeding network for this structure. In this case, it has a significantly short filling time which allows for ultrashort pulse length, thereby increasing the achievable gradient. In this paper, a design of an X-band parallel-coupled TW structure is presented in detail.

        Speaker: Zexin Cao (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 120
        Detailed characterization of coherent synchrotron radiation effects using generative phase space reconstruction

        Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in linear accelerators (linacs) is detrimental to applications that require highly compressed beams, such as FELs and wakefield accelerators. However, traditional measurement techniques lack the precision to fully comprehend the intricate multi-dimensional aspects of CSR, particularly the varying rotation of transverse phase space slices along the longitudinal coordinate of the bunch. This study explores the effectiveness of our generative-model-based high-dimensional phase space reconstruction method in characterizing CSR effects at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility (AWA). We demonstrate that the reconstruction algorithm can successfully reconstruct beams that are affected by CSR.

        Speaker: Juan Pablo Gonzalez-Aguilera (University of Chicago)
      • 121
        Detailed simulation study of wakefield induced beam dynamics in the dielectric dechirper at CLARA

        Minimizing the energy spread within the electron bunch is essential for an optimal performance of free electron lasers. Wakefields from corrugated and dielectric structures have been demonstrated to be effective in bunch dechirping. However, the repercussions in beam quality are not yet well understood. Here, a dielectric wakefield structure, manufactured to be included at the CLARA facility, has been studied by simulations. It consists of two planar and orthogonally oriented dielectric waveguides with adjustable dielectric gaps. This structure allows the longitudinal wakefield to compensate the energy spread while controlling the undesirable effect of the transverse wakefields in the beam quality. Simulations have been performed using the in-house developed code called DiWaCAT. These simulations included different bunch lengths, beam energy spreads and dielectric gaps to allow a better understanding of longitudinal and transverse wakefields beam effects within the dechirper.

        Speaker: Beatriz Higuera Gonzalez (Cockcroft Institute)
      • 122
        Development of novel magnetically-focussed minibeams for in vivo and in vitro end stations for Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications

        Radiotherapy is an effective, non-invasive, widely used treatment for cancerous tumours that uses x-ray photon, electron and ion beam sources. The Laser-hybrid Accelerator for Radiobiological Applications (LhARA) is a novel laser-driven accelerator system under development that aims to prove the principle of the laser-driven approach to Particle Beam Therapy (PBT). This study aims at the development of a novel system to deliver different light ion minibeams to the in vivo and in vitro end stations. The desired minibeams will be delivered by magnetically focusing and steering the incoming proton and light ion beams, without the use of collimators. Minibeams with a diameter of approximately 1 mm spot will be delivered at an energy of 15 MeV to the in vivo and in vitro end stations. An update on the status of the development of this magnetic focusing technique will be presented here.

        Speaker: Rehanah Razak (Imperial College London)
      • 123
        Devices and preparation methods for niobium coupon samples used to investigate high-Q mechanism

        A surface treatment device has been established at the Wuxi Platform, enabling chemical polishing treatment on coupon samples. Currently, several samples treated with buffered chemical polishing (BCP) have been utilized in the investigation of nitrogen doping and medium-temperature baking mechanisms. This paper presents the development process of this device along with the experimental outcomes. In the future, we plan to enhance the device to facilitate electropolishing (EP) treatment on coupon samples.

        Speaker: Yue Zong (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 124
        Direct measurements of RHIC BPM data at the IP using linear regression

        Many mature methods to measure the betatron function of a lattice rely on beam position monitor (BPM) data and the model of the whole machine. In this study, specific sections of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were analyzed, taking advantage of BPMs separated by drift spaces near interaction points (IPs) and B3/B4 magnet sections of RHIC. This (local) approach would provide a alternative measure of the linear optics at specific regions which can be compared to previous (global) methods. This process utilizes the phase transfer matrix built from existing BPM data from RHIC using Linear Regression (LR) techniques. Non-AC dipole BPM data as well as AC dipole data was used to measure the linear optics. It was found that the local method yields comparable beta beat to global methods; however, it differs significantly around IP6. This study demonstrates that using LR analysis has advantages and disadvantages, and that further studies are needed to improve the method.

        Speaker: William Fung (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)
      • 125
        Discovering transient models of emittance growth via mode interaction of phase space nonuniformities

        One of the Grand Challenges in beam physics is development of virtual particle accelerators for beam prediction. Virtual accelerators rely on efficient and effective methodologies grounded in theory, simulation, and experiment. We will address one sample methodology, extending the understanding and the control of deleterious effects, for example, emittance growth. We employ the application of the Sparse Identification of Nonlinear Dynamical systems algorithm–previously presented at NAPAC’22 and IPAC’23–to identify emittance growth dynamics caused by nonuniform, empirical distributions in phase space in a linear, hard-edge, periodic FODO lattice. To gain further understanding of the evolution of emittance growth as the beam’s distribution approaches steady state, we compare our results to theoretical predictions describing the final state emittance growth due to collective and N-body mode interaction of space charge nonuniformities as a function of free-energy and space-charge intensity. Finally, we extend our methodology to a broader range of virtual and real experiments to identify the growth(decay) of (un)desired beam parameters.

        Speaker: Liam Pocher (University of Maryland)
      • 126
        Dynamics study of the crab crossing at the electron ion collider using square matrix and iterative methods

        Crab crossings are designed to increase the luminosity of accelerators by ensuring beam interactions are closer to a head on collision. One will be implemented at the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is then important to examine how the crab cavity will affect beam dynamics at the EIC. Methods such as Frequency Map Analysis (FMA) have been shown to be helpful in examining the phase space of accelerators in order to find properties such as resonances and the dynamic aperture. An alternative to such methods is an iterative method based on square matrix method that has been shown to reveal similar properties as FMA while reducing the computational power needed,*. This method has been applied to the crab crossing scheme in order to find and explain effects of the higher order mode of crab cavities on the particle dynamics of the EIC.

        Speaker: Kelly Anderson (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University)
      • 127
        Effects of implantation temperature and annealing on structural evolution and migration of ruthenium in glassy carbon

        The use of glassy carbon (GC) as a future nuclear waste storage material depends on its capability to retain all radioactive fission products found in spent nuclear fuels. Ruthenium (Ru) is one of the most important fission products in nuclear reactors. This work investigates the effects of implantation temperature and annealing on the structural evolution and migration of Ru implanted in GC. To achieve these objectives, 150 keV Ru+ was implanted into GC samples separately at room temperature (RT) and 200°C to a fluence of 1×10^16 cm^−2. Some of the as-implanted samples were annealed at two temperature regimes (from 500 to 1000°C and from 1000 to 1300°C–in steps of 100°C) for 5 h and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Both Raman spectroscopy and XRD showed that implantation caused defects in the GC structures, with more defects in the RT as-implanted sample. Annealing caused the healing of both sample types but retained some radiation damage. No migration of Ru atoms was observed after annealing the as-implanted samples up to 800°C. However, a different migration behavior was seen after annealing the RT and 200°C samples from 900 to 1300°C, attributed to the aggregation, trapping and de-trapping of Ru atoms in different amounts of defect induced by implantation.

        Speaker: Tasabeeh Alabid Jafer (University of Pretoria)
      • 128
        Emittance growth studies due to Crab Cavity induced amplitude noise in the SPS

        In the context of the HL-LHC upgrade, RF Crab Cavities (CCs) are one of the key components. Due to the increased intensity, the collider will operate with a large crossing angle scheme and these CCs will be used to counteract the geometrical reduction factor coming from the crossing angle. Amplitude and phase noise injected from the Low-Level RF, are known to induce transverse bunch emittance growth. This contribution presents the latest measurements of emittance growth induced by amplitude noise. The measurement was performed thanks to the SPS Beam Synchrotron Radiation Telescope (BSRT), that has been used to characterize the evolution of the transverse distributions. The measured emittance growth was found to be dependent on the amplitude detuning induced by the SPS octupoles, although no dependence was predicted by the available theories and models. In this paper, the measurement results will be presented and discussed.

        Speaker: Andrea Fornara (The University of Manchester)
      • 129
        Enhanced harmonic stability in magnet resonant power supplies via multi-harmonic closed-loop control and current feedforward

        As the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) Phase II project upgrades beam power to 500 kW, maintaining horizontal beam orbit stability necessitates more precise output current from the main magnet power supplies. The existing control strategy, suited for 100 kW extraction power, falls short of the higher precision requirements for the output current, characterized by a quasi-sinusoidal waveform with 25 Hz and its higher-order harmonics. Moreover, this strategy is highly sensitive to environmental temperature, causing significant fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of the high-order harmonics, thereby adversely affecting the power supplies' performance.
        This paper proposes a new control scheme that merges high-order harmonic current compensation with double PI closed-loop control, enabling up to sixth harmonic control in the main magnet power supplies. Leveraging the existing Digital Power Supply Control Module (DPSCM) controller in the power supply system, this approach achieves precise and efficient control of the 50 Hz harmonic current output which was previously the source of the largest ripple error.
        The study confirms that the new control scheme effectively mitigates temperature drift issues and reduces the output ripple of the entire 50 Hz reference current waveform. As a result, the performance of the main magnet resonant power supplies in Rapid Cycle Synchrotron is significantly enhanced, leading to a marked reduction in the variation of beam orbit deviation.

        Speaker: Ran Li (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 130
        Experimental design for validating the feasibility of in-situ plasma cleaning of normal conducting copper cavities

        To reduce the dark current and secondary electron multiplication in conventional conducting accelerator cavities, and to improve the quantum efficiency of copper photocathodes, thereby achieving higher beam quality and enhancing the acceleration gradient and operational stability of accelerators, Tsinghua University designed a 13.56 MHz internal coil-type capacitive discharge plasma experimental platform to validate the feasibility of in-situ plasma cleaning of conventional superconducting copper cavities. This paper mainly introduces the architecture of this experimental platform, including the structure of the experimental cavity and its accompanying gas system, microwave system, and monitoring system. This experiment also validates the oxidation and reduction capabilities of the active components in the plasma, particularly comparing the oxidation ability of excited oxygen atoms and oxygen ions and the reduction ability of excited hydrogen atoms and hydrogen ions. This experimental platform can be used for cleaning and reduction of small and simple copper structures and verifies the feasibility of In-situ plasma cleaning of conventional conducting copper cavities.

        Speaker: Qianxu Xia (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 131
        Experimental study into the invasiveness of a gas jet beam profile monitor for charged particle beams

        A minimally-invasive gas jet in-vivo dosimeter for medical treatment facilities is being developed at the Cockcroft Institute (UK), to provide full online (real time) monitoring with less frequent calibration. The monitor functions via a thin, low-density, gas jet curtain, intersecting with the beam. Online monitoring is crucial for hadron beams where acceptable dose tolerances are narrow, hence the beam should be perturbed only by the minimum amount necessary to acquire a signal. An experiment to determine the level of invasiveness of supersonic gas jet beam profile monitors was undertaken to quantify how much the gas jet perturbs the beam. This was accomplished using a 10 keV electron gun with a maximum current of ~100 μA, available in the DITAlab of the Cockcroft Institute. A scintillator screen and Faraday cup were placed in path of the beam to measure the change in beam size and current respectively. In the future, a simulation study using GEANT4 will be completed with the experimental beam parameters to verify the results. This contribution examines the perturbation experienced by a particle beam from a gas jet beam profile monitor, and quantifies the effect the jet has on the beam size and current.

        Speaker: Oliver Stringer (Cockcroft Institute)
      • 132
        Exploring high gradient limit with cryogenic experiments at FREIA laboratory

        Field emission (FE) and vacuum arcs limit the maximum achievable accelerating field of both normal and superconducting cavities. The performance of accelerating cavities can be improved after a long conditioning process. Understanding this process and the formation of vacuum arcs is important for all technologies where vacuum arcs cause device failure. The understanding could be more complete with novel diagnostic tools and tests in variable environments.
        The cryogenic HV system in FREIA laboratory is used to study different aspects of conditioning using DC pulses at a wide range of temperatures, down to 4K. We are currently measuring FE currents during conditioning for Cu, Nb and Ti electrodes in function of temperature and breakdown rate. We are also developing a new characterization method, evaluating the surface resistivity of the electrodes during conditioning. Changes in the surface resistivity could indicate the formation of dislocations below the surface, which has been speculated to be a very important process behind conditioning.
        We will present the results of conditioning with the FE measurements and the surface resistivity measurements.

        Speaker: Mircea Coman (Uppsala University)
      • 133
        Fabrication and tuning of a 325 MHz ion-injector prototype for particle therapy facility

        In order to miniaturize ion injectors for particle therapy, a design of ion injectors based on a 325 MHz operating frequency was completed. The LINAC was consist of a 2.0 m length RFQ and a 3.8 m length IH-DTL, which was designed to accelerate 12C4+, 3H+, 3He+ and 18O6+ beams to 7 MeV/u. The RFQ cavity and the first DTL tank was been manufactured using aluminum. This paper gives an overview of the fabrication and tuning procedure of the prototype. The quadrupole electric field of the RFQ is adjusted flat by the tuner while reducing the dipole field components in both directions. The measured DTL electric field distribution after tuning is in good agreement with the simulation results.

        Speaker: Yusen Guo (ShanghaiTech University)
      • 134
        Field emission assisted heating of Cs2Te photocathode: implication toward RF breakdown

        The occurrence of breakdown events are a primary limiting factor for future accelerator applications aiming to operate under high field-gradient environments. Experimental evidence often leads to a hypothesis that breakdown events are associated with temperature and dark current spikes on the surface of RF devices. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in unveiling the mechanism behind breakdown in metal copper and copper alloys; however, there has been a limited effort regarding breakdown phenomenon in photocathode relevant semiconductors.
        In this work, we explore field emission assisted localized heating via Nottingham and Joule processes. Field emission from intrinsic cesium telluride ultra thin film coated on top of a copper substrate was modeled within Stratton–Baskin–Lvov–Fursey formalism, describing the processes and effects in the bulk and at the surface of a semiconductor exposed to a high applied electric field. These heating effects were incorporated into the surface diffusion model, where the surface gradient of the chemical potential defines the time evolution and resulting reorganization of the surface.

        Speaker: Ryo Shinohara (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 135
        Findings of simulation studies for the fast corrector magnets of PETRA IV

        Fourth-generation synchrotron radiation sources, which are currently being planned in several accelerator laboratories, require fast orbit feedback systems to correct distortions in the particle orbit in order to meet stringent stability requirements. Such feedback systems feature corrector magnets powered at frequencies up to the kilohertz range, giving rise to strong eddy currents. To understand the eddy current effects and the characteristics of these fast corrector magnets, elaborate finite element simulations must be conducted. This paper gives an overview of the most important findings of our simulation studies for the fast corrector magnets of the future synchrotron radiation source PETRA IV at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Using a homogenization technique for the laminated yokes, we simulate the magnets over a wide frequency range.

        Speaker: Jan-Magnus Christmann (Technische Universität Darmstadt)
      • 136
        Focusing of high-energy electron beam using silicon crystals for application in radiotherapy

        By using a high-energy electron beam (beam energy of several hundred MeV) strongly focused on the tumor lesion area, radiotherapy can be performed with a relatively simple beam generation and handling system while resulting in a suitable shape of the deposition energy curve in a tissue-like material. Quadrupole magnets are typically used for beam focusing, which makes the beam delivery system complex and challenging from an engineering point of view. In the Geant4 simulation toolkit, we performed a feasibility study of an alternative solution, in which focusing is achieved by using a bent silicon crystal with an appropriately shaped exit surface. However, the focusing strength is still not high enough. Research to find the optimal crystal shape to achieve the ideal focusing strength is ongoing. Such a crystal lens can be a very light object (mass in the order of grams), allowing for a much simpler beam delivery system for radiotherapy facilities.

        Speaker: Marta Monikowska (Warsaw University of Technology)
      • 137
        Gas jet-based beam profile monitor for the electron beam test stand at CERN

        A non-invasive bidirectional beam profile monitor using beam-induced fluorescence upon a thin sheet of gas has been developed at the Cockcroft Institute in collaboration with CERN and GSI. This device is particularly suited to the Electron Beam Test Stand, and as such, a bespoke gas injection has been optimized for this specific use-case to provide diagnostics unavailable to conventional scintillator screens. The bidirectionality allows for the observation of beam reflections back along the beam path as a result of a beam dump with non-optimized repeller electrode potential. Furthermore, the heating effects of a high current DC beam are negated by the self-replenishing gas sheet. These benefits make this device ideal for use in the Electron Beam Test Stand.
        This contribution summarizes the optimization study of the gas jet generation performed with a multi-objective genetic algorithm to meet required screen dimensions whilst maintaining acceptable vacuum levels.

        Speaker: Oliver Stringer (Cockcroft Institute)
      • 138
        Generation of attosecond electron bunches through terahertz regulation

        Obtaining ultrashort electron bunches is the key to the studies of ultrafast science, yet second and higher order nonlinearities limits the bunch length to a few femtoseconds after compression. Traditional regulation methods using rf higher order harmonics have already optimized the bunch length to sub-fs scale, yet the energy loss and rf jitter are not negligible. In this paper we demonstrate the second order regulation with THz pulses through a dielectric-loaded wave-guide. Simulations suggest that with higher order correction, the MeV electron bunches with tens of fC charges can be compressed to a 679 attoseconds rms and the second order distortion can be compensated. The transverse beam size is also optimized to 16.8 um rms. This scheme is feasible for a wide range of electron charges. The relatively short bunch length is expected to find a better time resolution in UED, UEM and other ultrafast, time-resolved studies.

        Speaker: Yian Wang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 139
        Generation of symmetrical optical caustic beams for precise alignment

        Generating layers of symmetrical optical caustic beams using a specific configuration of cylindrical lenses is an innovative idea with potential application in precision alignment and other fields. The technique allows the generation of layers of non-diffracting beams with opposite accelerating directions. This approach can be extended in two dimensions or to create rotationally symmetric beams. Prior methods have produced similar beams using spatial light modulators, but the presented approach with cylindrical lenses reduces setup complexity and cost, thereby opening the possibility for new applications. In the context of particle accelerators, these include particle acceleration using high-power lasers and alignment of accelerator components. The presented research emphasizes the possibility for this technique to be used as a reference line for precise alignment. It allows the generation of reference lines with a thickness in the order of millimeters for distances of tens to hundreds of meters, which is advantageous for large accelerator facilities. A brief description of the sensors used to detect misalignment is also presented.

        Speaker: Martin Dusek (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 140
        Impact of octupoles on the Schottky spectra of bunched beams

        Schottky monitors serve as non-invasive tools for beam diagnostics, providing insights into crucial bunch characteristics such as tune, chromaticity, bunch profile, or synchrotron frequency distribution. However, octupole magnets commonly used in circular storage rings to mitigate instabilities through the Landau damping mechanism, can significantly affect the Schottky spectrum. Due to the amplitude-dependent incoherent tune shift of individual particles, the satellites of the Schottky spectrum are smeared out as the octupolar field increases. This study investigates the impact of octupoles and their incorporation into theory, with the goal of improving beam and machine parameter evaluation from measured spectra. Theoretical findings are validated through macro-particle simulations conducted across a range of octupole strengths, encompassing typical operational conditions at the Large Hadron Collider.

        Speaker: Christophe Lannoy (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 141
        Implementing bunch-by-bunch diagnostics at the KARA booster synchrotron

        In the upcoming compact STorage ring for Accelerator Research and Technology (cSTART), LPA-like electron bunches are only stored for about 100 ms, in which the equilibrium emittance will not be reached. Therefore, to measure parameters such as bunch profiles, arrival times and bunch current losses, bunch-resolved diagnostics are needed.
        The booster synchrotron of the KARA accelerator accepts pre-accelerated bunches from a racetrack microtron and accelerates them further over a 500 ms long energy ramp. As the KARA booster synchrotron has a similar circumference and injection energy as the cSTART storage ring, new bunch-by-bunch diagnostics developed there can be transferred to the cSTART project with minimal effort. Currently the diagnostic system of the booster is not designed for bunch-by-bunch diagnostics, thus after using the booster as a testbed for cSTART, such a system could be used permanently.
        At the booster synchrotron we use the picosecond sampling system KAPTURE-II to read-out a button beam position monitor and an avalanche photo diode at the synchrotron light port and compare the results with a commercial bunch-by-bunch system.

        Speaker: Marvin Noll (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
      • 142
        Improvements of longitudinal stability with LLRF optimization at SIRIUS

        SIRIUS is a 4th generation synchrotron light source built and operated by the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Recently, investigations of noise sources and the storage ring RF plant identification enabled a fine-tuning of the Digital Low-Level Radio Frequency (DLLRF) parameters. This paper presents the main improvements implemented, which include the mitigation of 60Hz noise from the LLRF Front End and the optimization of the control system parameters. Optimizations in the machine were based on an adjusted model of the SIRIUS storage ring RF plant. Tests with the model's parameters showed that the system's stability was strongly dependent on phase shifts introduced by nonlinearities from the high power RF sources. The new parameters significantly improved the control performance, increasing the bandwidth of the system and reducing longitudinal oscillations. BPM (Beam Position Monitor) and BbB (Bunch-by-Bunch) systems were employed to quantify longitudinal beam stability improvements.

        Speaker: David Daminelli (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory)
      • 143
        Investigating X-ray detector systems using Monte Carlo techniques

        Digital Tomosynthesis (DT) is a 3D mode of x-ray imaging. Adaptix Ltd have developed a novel mobile DT device enabled by implementing an array of R-ray emission points and a flat-panel detector. This device gives access to human and animal 3D imaging, as well as to non-destructive material evaluation. DT is not as clinically popular as Computed Tomography (CT) or radiography, and flat-panel source DT even less so, thus creating scope to investigate the optimal flat-panel detector technology for this modality. Geant4, a Monte Carlo Particle Transport code, has been used to simulate the Adaptix Ltd system to do this. Parameters such as the material composition of the detectors, the exact detection method and the inclusion vs exclusion of a scintillation layer are tested in this simulation environment. This work aims to find the optimal flat-panel detector design by comparing different scintillator compositions and structures for this DT method. Therefore, the ideal detector that preserves the advantages of this low-cost, low-dose scanning approach is determined.

        Speaker: Lauryn Eley (Cockcroft Institute)
      • 144
        Investigation of hot-spots due to local trapped flux in niobium superconducting radiofrequency cavities

        One of the significant sources of residual losses in superconducting radio-frequency cavities is magnetic flux trapped during the cool-down due to the incomplete Messier effect. If the trapped vortices are non-uniformly distributed on the cavity surface, the temperature mapping revealed the “hotspots” at the location of high density of pinned vortices. Here, we performed a rf test on 1.3 GHz single cell cavity with the combination of the temperature mapping system. The temperature mapping reveled the development of the hot spots with the increase in rf field inside the cavity. When magnetic field is trapped locally on the surface of cavity, the hot-spots strength increase rapidly, showing the direct correlation of vortex induced hot spot and corresponding rf loss.

        Speaker: Bashu Khanal (Old Dominion University)
      • 145
        Magnetic measurements for Halbach-type permanent quadrupoles using a single-stretched wire system

        In the framework of the acceleration techniques, the Plasma Wake Field Acceleration (PWFA) is one of the most promising in terms of high machine compactness. For this purpose, a crucial role is played by the particle beam focusing upward and downward the plasma-beam interaction, performed by high gradient Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs). In the framework of the INFN-LNF SPARC_LAB (Sources for Plasma Accelerators and Radiation Compton with Laser And Beam) six Halbach-type PMQs have been tested before installing them into the machine. This paper presents the outcomes of magnetic measurements conducted using a Single-Stretched Wire (SSW) system. The results include comprehensive details on integrated gradients, magnetic multipole components, and roll angles of the magnets. By considering the operational parameters of the machine, the results show that the tested magnets can be feasibly installed only within limited triplets configurations.

        Speaker: Davide Cuneo (Naples University Federico II and INFN)
      • 146
        Magnetron diagnostics with a novel optical fibre-Cherenkov detector

        Development of an optical fiber-based beam loss monitor (OBLM) is in progress at the Cockcroft Institute (CI), UK. The novel sensor utilizes the Cherenkov radiation (CR) emitted in optical fibers by relativistic particle showers generated in beam loss or breakdown events.
        Breakdowns are a problem for high-power magnetrons, such as those in medical accelerator facilities, as damage to the magnetron cathode reduces the device efficiency and lifetime. These events can be detected by emitted CR channeled along the fibers to photomultiplier detectors, and a time-of-flight method can be used to calculate the breakdown location from the CR arrival time. This has previously been demonstrated with the OBLM system on RF cavities (at CLARA, Daresbury Laboratory, and CTF3, CERN); and allows for rapid and reliable breakdown detection which is important for damage mitigation.
        This contribution presents proof-of-concept measurements from OBLM studies into magnetrons at Teledyne e2v, Chelmsford. It also discusses design adjustments made to improve the detector sensitivity and how the performance can be enhanced using the sensor (or similar).

        Speaker: Prof. Carsten Welsch (The University of Liverpool)
      • 147
        Mapping of an SRF electron gun focusing solenoid assembly

        SLAC’s LCLS-II-HE upgrade will expand the energy regime of their XFEL at high repetition rates. Due to the low emittance requirement, a superconducting QWR based electron gun was proposed by SLAC and is being developed by FRIB in collaboration with ANL and HZDR. The emittance compensation solenoid consists of two main coils, along with horizontal and vertical dipoles as well as normal and skew quadrupole correctors. To validate the performance and characterize the field profile of the magnet, we developed a mapper system. We utilized a SENIS 3D Hall probe on a cantilevered rail driven by an Arduino controlled stepper motor. With high repeatability, we were able to measure peak field strengths and fall off. Further data analysis allowed us to determine their relative locations, in addition to confirming alignment and integrated field strengths. In accordance with design specifications, we measured the peak solenoid fields to be about 172mT and their centers to be less than 0.1mm apart transversely. The mapping design, assembly, process, analysis, and lessons learned are discussed herein.

        Speaker: Christopher Jones (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University)
      • 148
        Measurement and modeling of beam transport in the FODO line of the Spallation Neutron Source Beam Test Facility

        Ongoing studies at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Beam Test Facility (BTF) seek to understand and model bunch dynamics in a high-power LINAC front-end. The BTF has recently been upgraded with a reconfiguration from a U-shaped line to a Straight line. We report the current state of model benchmarking, with a focus on RMS beam sizes within the FODO line. The beam measurement is obtained via three camera/screen pairs in the FODO line. This presentation discusses the methodology and results of this measurement.

        Speaker: Trent Thompson (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 149
        Measurement of stability diagrams in the IOTA ring at Fermilab

        Nonlinear focusing elements can enhance the stability of particle beams in high-energy colliders through Landau Damping, by means of the tune spread which is introduced. Here we discuss an experiment at Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) which investigates the influence of nonlinear focusing elements, such as octupoles, on the beam’s transverse stability. In this experiment, we employ an anti-damper, an active transverse feedback system, as a controlled mechanism to induce coherent beam instability. By utilizing the anti-damper we can examine the impact of a nonlinear focusing element on the beam's transverse stability. The stability diagram, a tool used to determine the system's stability, is measured using a recently demonstrated method at the LHC. The experiment at IOTA adds insight towards this stability diagram measurement method by supplying a reduced machine impedance to investigate the machine impedance’s effect on the stability diagram, as well as by aiming to map out the full stability diagram by using a large phase range of the anti-damper. From this experiment in IOTA, we present the first results of stability diagram analysis with varying octupole currents.

        Speaker: Mary Bossard (University of Chicago)
      • 150
        Measuring uniformity and gas density of gas sheet profile monitor for use with heavy-ion accelerators

        We report updates on design work* and ongoing development of a fluorescence-based molecular gas curtain which will be used to observe the 2D transverse profile of multi-charge state heavy ion beams at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The device will produce an ultra-thin, rarefied nitrogen gas sheet and requires that the gas curtain be uniform and thin to prevent distortion of the collected signal in operation. To determine the characteristics of the generated curtain, we evaluate the design using a combination of bench-testing with a Bayard-Alpert gauge and molecular dynamics simulations using MolFlow+. This paper details the design and bench testing of the sheet generator, gas removal system, and interaction chamber of the device, as well as expected photon generation from these parameters.

        Speaker: Aubrey Lokey (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University)
      • 151
        Mechanical design, structural requirements and optimization of the FCC e+e- interaction region components

        This paper describes the mechanical design of the Future Circular Collider e+e- interaction region. The Future Circular Collider, as a forefront particle accelerator project, demands meticulous attention to the mechanical integrity and performance of its components, to the integration of the different systems and to the respect of the spatial constraint. The vacuum chamber design, the support tube and the bellows design are reported, highlighting the solutions adopted. The structural optimization method of the support structure is also presented, as well as the results obtained.

        Speaker: Francesco Fransesini (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 152
        Microscopic understanding of the effects of impurities in low RRR SRF cavities

        The SRF community has shown that introducing certain impurities into high-purity niobium can improve quality factors and accelerating gradients. We question why some impurities improve RF performance while others hinder it. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impurities of niobium coupons with a low residual resistance ratio (RRR) and correlate these impurities with the RF performance of low RRR cavities so that the mechanism of impurity-based improvements can be better understood and improved upon. The combination of RF testing, temperature mapping, frequency vs temperature analysis, and materials studies reveals a microscopic picture of why low RRR cavities experience low BCS resistance behavior more prominently than their high RRR counterparts. We evaluate how differences in the mean free path, grain structure, and impurity profile affect RF performance. The results of this study have the potential to unlock a new understanding on SRF materials and enable the next generation of high Q/high gradient surface treatments.

        Speaker: Katrina Howard (University of Chicago)
      • 153
        Minimizing space charge tune spread and increasing beam quality parameters with circular modes

        Space charge has been a limiting effect for low energy accelerators inducing emittance growth and tune spread. Tune shift and tune spread parameters are important for avoiding resonances, which limits intensity of the beam. Circular modes are round beams with intrinsic flatness that are generated through strong coupling, where intrinsic flatness can be transformed to real plane flatness through decoupling. It is understood that flat beams increase the quality parameters of a beam due to one of the plane emittances being smaller than the other plane since luminosity and beam brightness depend inversely on the beam emittances. We show that circular mode beams manifest smaller space charge tune spread compared to uncorrelated round beams, which allows better systematic control of operating point of the beam. Minimized tune spread allows flexible operating points on the tune map. We also dedicate current and intrinsic flatness ratio limits on circular modes, which increase quality parameters without detrimental effects on the emittance increase.

        Speaker: Onur Gilanliogullari (Illinois Institute of Technology)
      • 154
        Modeling and optimization of the FACET-II injector with machine learning algorithms

        Linear particle accelerators are elaborate machines that demand a thorough comprehension of their beam physics interactions to enhance performance. Traditionally, physics simulations model the physics interactions inside a machine but they are computationally intensive. A novel solution to the long runtimes of physics simulations is replacing the intensive computations with a machine learning model that predicts the results instead of simulating them. Simple neural networks take milliseconds to compute the results. The ability to make physics predictions in almost real time opens a world of online models that can predict diagnostics which typically are destructive to the beam when measured.
        This research entailed the incorporation of an innovative simulation infrastructure for the SLAC FACET-II group, aimed at optimizing existing physics simulations through advanced algorithms. The new infrastructure saves the simulation data at each step in optimization and then improves the input parameters to achieve a more desired result. The data generated by the simulation was then used to create a machine learning model to predict the parameters generated in the simulation. The machine learning model was a simple feedforward neural network and showed success in accurately predicting parameters such as beam emittance and bunch length from varied inputs.

        Speaker: Sanjeev Chauhan (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 155
        Multi-mode cavity design and characterization

        We present the design and initial characterization of a multi-mode cavity, a novel electromagnetic structure with potential benefits such as compactness, efficiency, and cost reduction. The 2nd Harmonic mode was chosen to linearize the fundamental mode for use as an accelerating and bunching cavity. The reduction in the number of cavities required to bunch and accelerate promises cost and space savings over conventional approaches. Superfish and COMSOL simulations were used to optimize the cavity's geometry with the goal of balancing various design parameters, such as quality factor (Q-factor), harmonic modes, and mode coupling. A 3D-printed copper-plated cavity was used to validate code predictions.
        The cavity's multi-mode nature positions it for use with other harmonic modes with small deviations in design. For example, a 3rd Harmonic can be used to decrease energy spread by widening the peak of the fundamental. This research lays the foundation for further exploration of the cavity's applications and optimization for specific use cases, with potential implications for a wide range of accelerator fields.

        Speaker: Mr Benjamin Sims (Michigan State University)
      • 156
        Near-infrared noise in intense electron beams

        Requirements for the noise in electron beams (NEB) have recently approached the Shot-noise level in some new applications. The density fluctuations of intense beams in the near-infrared (NIR) region are being measured at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. The main goal of the experiment is to accurately compare the Shot-noise model with the observations of optical transition radiation (OTR) generated by the gamma=63 electron beam transiting an Al metal surface. In addition, evidence for longitudinal-space-charge-induced microbunching for the chicane-compressed beam was obtained with coherent enhancements up to 100 in the various bandwidth-filtered NIR OTR photodiode signals. With micropulse charges up to 1 nC, the beam parameters are close to those proposed for a stage in an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) with coherent electron cooling (CEC). In this paper we present the current progress of the NEB project and compare the low electron energy measurements with ImpactX simulations.

        Speaker: Sergei Kladov (University of Chicago)
      • 157
        New design techniques on matching couplers for travelling wave accelerating structures

        Numerical optimizations on couplers of the traveling wave accelerating structures usually require lots of calculation resources. This paper proposes a new technique for matching couplers to an accelerating structure in a more efficient way. It combines conventional Kroll method with improved Kyhl method, thereby simplifying the tuning and simulation process. We will present the detailed design of a constant-gradient C-band accelerating structure based on this new method.

        Speaker: Zexin Cao (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 158
        Novel materials for beam acceleration

        Bulk niobium is currently the standard material for constructing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for acceleration in particle accelerators. However, bulk niobium is limited, and new materials and surface treatments may allow greater performance to be reached. We present progress on novel materials and treatments for SRF cavity fabrication.

        Speaker: Sadie Seddon-Stettler (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 159
        Optimizing current density measurements for intense low beta electron beams

        The cathode test stand at LANL is utilized to test velvet emitters over pulse durations of up to 2.5 µs. Diode voltages range from 120 kV to 275 kV and extracted currents exceed 25 A and depend on cathode size and pulse duration. Current density measurements taken with scintillators or Cherenkov emitters produce inconsistent patterns that disagree with the anticipated beam profile. Several factors contribute to the measured beam distribution, such as electron scatter, X-ray scatter, and Snell’s law. Here, we present a range of experiments designed to evaluate both electron scatter and Cherenkov emission limits in efforts to optimize current density measurements. For electron ranging studies, metal foils of different densities and thicknesses are coupled with a scintillator, which is then imaged with an ICCD. Similarly, Cherenkov emission and Snell’s law are investigated through imaging materials with differing indices of refraction over a range of beam energies. MCNP6® modeling is utilized to further guide and evaluate these experimental measurements.

        Speaker: Madison Howard (Michigan State University)
      • 160
        Optimizing the sextupole configuration for simultaneous correction of third order resonances at the recycler ring

        For the Recycler Ring at Fermilab, space charge tune shifts of almost 0.1 will have to be dealt with under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP-II) framework. This will lead to the excitation of third order resonances. The minimization of Resonance Driving Terms (RDTs) allows to mitigate the harmful effect of these betatron resonances. Past work has shown that previously-installed sextupoles can compensate the RDTs of individual third order resonance lines, thus reducing particle losses in these operational regimes. Nevertheless, trying to compensate multiple resonances of the same order simultaneously with these existing sextupoles is limited due to current constraints in the magnets. The following study showcases the procedure to install additional sextupoles in order to aid the compensation of multiple resonances. This includes the optimization of the new sextupoles' locations in order to cancel out multiple RDTs while minimizing the currents needed. This is followed by a verification of their effectiveness by means of the RDT response matrix.

        Speaker: Cristhian Gonzalez-Ortiz (Michigan State University)
      • 161
        Parameters and process study of copper chamber coating with niobium thin films in DC and HIPIMS modes

        This study primarily investigates the parameters and processes involved in depositing Nb thin films on copper cavities under DC and HIPIMS modes. For this purpose, a high-power magnetron sputtering system was designed, conducting a total of 36 experiments. Improvement and optimization of parameters such as duty cycle (under HIPIMS mode), peak current, and bias voltage were undertaken to enhance film quality and performance metrics such as density. Surface morphology and superconducting properties of the films were characterized using SEM, XRD, Tc measurements, and other analytical methods. It was found that the Nb film deposited at a bias voltage of 100 V and a peak current of 150 A exhibited better performance. Lateral analysis of films deposited on different areas of the cavity revealed that in the DC mode, film grain sizes at the cell level were smaller with more defects, whereas in the HIPIMS mode, the niobium film exhibited finer and elongated grains, with grain sizes across various parts of the cavity being closer and defects reduced. This resulted in greater internal uniformity within the entire cavity, contributing to the enhancement of Q and E.

        Speaker: Jiawen Kan (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 162
        PIP-II laser beam profile monitor laser system

        Fermilab is currently engaged in the development of an 800 MeV superconducting RF linac, aiming to replace its existing 400 MeV normal conducting linac. PIP-II is a warm front-end producing 2 mA of 2.1 MeV H-, followed by a sequence of superconducting RF cryomodules leading to 800 MeV. To mitigate potential damage to the superconducting RF cavities, PIP-II uses laser-based monitors for beam profiling via photoionization. This abstract provides an update on the project’s beam profiling, focusing on advancements made since the initial prototype. The prototype profile monitor featured a high-repetition-rate, low-power fiber laser and fiber optic transport that was tested with a 2.1 MeV H- beam at the PIP-II Injector Test (PIP2IT) accelerator. Since then, the fiber laser and fiber transport have been upgraded to a diode laser based system and free-space optical transport. This highlights a significant evolution in the laser system, enhancing its efficiency and adaptability. This paper will focus on an alternative laser system for the transverse beam measurements. The new system will use a variable pulse-width drive laser system via gain-switching, and the newly implemented free-space propagated optical beam

        Speaker: Parker Landon (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 163
        Progress on pulsed electron beams for radiation effects characterization of electronics

        Ultrafast high-energy pulsed electron beams can provide deep penetration and variable linear energy transfers by controlling the characteristics of the electron bunch, both of which currently oversubscribed heavy ion facilities cannot provide. Early experiments at the UCLA PEGASUS beamline (~3 MeV) with ~1 ps electron bunches and a 50 μm spot size yielded charge collection transients that were not correlated well with standard heavy-ion data. Sub-micron focusing of the beam would allow for the electron bunch to mimic ion tracks by saturating the charge collection in a small cross-sectional area while simultaneously providing high spatial resolution to allow for the targeted testing of microelectronic components. Using a 10 μm collimator and strong lens, current experiments are planned at UCLA to characterize standard photodiodes with smaller spot sizes to achieve stronger correlations with the heavy-ion data.

        Speaker: Atharva Kulkarni (Particle Beam Physics Lab (PBPL))
      • 164
        Proposal for a proton-bunch compression experiment at IOTA in the strong space-charge regime

        The longitudinal compression of intense proton bunches with strong space-charge force is an essential component of a proton-based muon source for a muon collider. This paper discusses a proton-bunch compression experiment at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab to explore optimal radio frequency (RF) cavity and lattice configurations. IOTA is a compact fixed-energy storage ring that can circulate a 2.5-MeV proton beam with varying beam parameters and lattice configurations. The study will aim to demonstrate a bunch-compression factor of at least 2 in the IOTA ring while examining the impact of intense space-charge effects on the compression process.

        Speaker: Benjamin Simons (Northern Illinois University)
      • 165
        Real time crystal collimation monitoring at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

        At the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), bent crystals play a crucial role in efficiently redirecting beam halo particles toward secondary collimators used for absorption. This innovative crystal collimation method leverages millimeter-sized crystals to achieve deflection equivalent to a magnetic field of hundreds of Tesla, significantly enhancing the machine’s cleaning performance particularly when running with heavy ion beams. Nevertheless, ensuring the continuous effectiveness of this process requires the optimal channeling angle with respect to the beam to be constantly maintained. The primary goal of this study is to improve the monitoring of crystal collimation by providing a tool that detects any deviations from the optimal channeling orientation. These deviations can arise from both crystal movement and fluctuations in beam dynamics. The ability to adapt and compensate for these changes is crucial for ensuring stable performance of crystal collimation during LHC operation. To achieve this, a feedforward neural network (FNN) was trained using data collected during the 2023 lead ion physics run at the LHC. The results demonstrate the network’s capability to supervise these crystal devices, accurately classifying when the crystal is optimally aligned with respect to the circulating beam. Furthermore, the model provides valuable insights into how to adjust the crystal’s position to restore optimal channeling conditions when required.

        Speaker: Gianmarco Ricci (Sapienza University of Rome)
      • 166
        Real-time measurements of the RF-path of an electro-optical bunch arrival-time monitor with integrated planar pickup structure with low-charge electron beams at ELBE

        Ultra-low-charge operation of free-electron lasers down to 1 pC or even lower, requires adequate diagnostics for both, the users and the operators. For the electro-optical bunch-arrival time monitor (BAM) a fundamental design update is necessary to yield single-digit fs precision with such low charges. In 2023 a vacuum sealed demonstrator for a novel pickup structure with integrated combination network on a printed circuit board (PCB) was built for operation at the free-electron laser ELBE at HZDR. Together with a new low-pi-voltage ultra-wideband traveling wave electro-optical modulator, this concept reaches an estimated theoretical jitter charge product of 9 fs pC. Proof-of-concept measurements with the pickup demonstrator were carried out at ELBE.

        Speaker: Mr Bernhard Scheible (Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen)
      • 167
        Research on design of a novel permanent quadrupole magnet

        Research on a novel permanent quadrpole magnet (PQM) design is introduced in this paper. It can make the quadrupole magnetic field gradient continuously adjustable by modulating several permanent magnet blocks. Four poles of the magnet inform an integral whole to ensure good structural symmetry, which is essential to obtain high-quality quadrupole magnetic field permanent quadrupole magnet. Series of simula-tion calculations have been done to study the effects of four distinct types of pole position coordinate errors on the central magnetic field. By juxtaposing these results with those derived from optimal design scenario of PQM, the study underscores the critical role that pole symmetry plays in this context. Two integrated design methodologies were proposed, with one of the designs undergoing processing and coordinate detection. The results indicate that this design, is capable of meeting the specified requirements. This design effectively ad-dresses the issue of asymmetrical pole installation, thereby ensuring to a certain extent that well-machined pole can generate a high-quality magnetic field.

        Speaker: Shaoxiang Dong (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 168
        Research on spatial alignment of laser and electron beam in the generation of ultra-short electron pulses by laser modulation

        The utilization of laser modulation techniques shows potential in producing sub-femtosecond electron beams within photoinjector electron guns. The precise spatial alignment between the modulated laser and electron beam is crucial for the stable emission of sub-femtosecond electron beams. In practical applications, inevitable lateral positional fluctuations are present in both the modulated laser and electron beam pulses, resulting in uneven and suboptimal modulation effects of the laser on the electron beam. Photocathode electron guns commonly utilize solenoid focusing for transverse electron beam concentration, inducing transverse phase space coupling and causing the laser-induced transverse jitter in the electron gun to not accurately reflect the transverse jitter of the electron beam. This study seeks to employ coherent lasers and devise a solenoid coil to disentangle the transverse phase space of the electron beam, ensuring that the transverse jitter of the electron beam aligns with the jitter of the modulated laser at the focal point.

        Speaker: Jingya Li (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 169
        RF design of a C-band spherical pulse compressor for Super Tau-Charm linac

        Pulse compressors have been widely used to generate very high peak RF power in exchange for the reduction in the RF pulse length for linear accelerators. As compared to a traditional SLAC Energy Doubler(SLED), a spherical pulse compressor is more compact while maintaining a high energy gain. A C-band spherical pulse compressor is studied in this paper, which consists of a dual-mode polarized coupler for producing two orthogonal TE11 modes simultaneously, as well as a resonant cavity working at TE113 mode for storing energy. Through optimizations, an average energy gain of 4.7 with a coupling factor of 6.6 can be achieved for such a spherical pulse compressor. The RF design of this pulse compressor has been finalized, the fabrication and measurement of prototype can be expected in the next step.

        Speaker: Zexin Cao (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 170
        Second generation Cherenkov diffraction radiation studies at Diamond Light Source

        Diamond Light Source (DLS) is a 3 GeV synchrotron facility in the UK, which has been a part of the Cherenkov diffraction radiation (ChDR) collaboration since 2017 and is now in its second phase of experiments. The current experiment aims to produce and test a one-dimensional beam position monitor (BPM) that utilizes ChDR at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. This paper will cover the characterization of the ChDR setup, including: the changes observed to the ChDR signal due to both beam specific and target specific variations.

        Speaker: Alec Clapp (Royal Holloway, University of London)
      • 171
        Simulation of beam loading compensation with RF-Track

        The beam loading effect results in a gradient reduction of the accelerating structures due to the excitation of the fundamental mode when the beam travels through the cavity. A recent implementation of this process in the tracking code RF-Track allows the simulation of realistic scenarios, thus revealing the impact of this phenomenon in start-to-end accelerator designs. In this paper, we present the latest update of the beam loading module which allows the simulation of the compensation of this effect and we explore the potential of the developed tool in heavy-loaded scenarios.

        Speaker: Javier Olivares Herrador (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 172
        Simulation studies of laser cooling for the Gamma Factory proof-of-principle experiment at the CERN SPS

        The proof-of-principle (PoP) experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN aims at demonstrating laser cooling of high energy Li-like Pb79+ in a synchrotron. First laser cooling simulations with realistic laser and beam parameters of the Gamma Factory proof-of-principle experiment (PoP) in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN are presented. Furthermore, we investigate the expected cooling performance for various laser-pulse types, such as Fourier-limited and continuous wave lasers, and compare their performance metrics such as emittance reduction and the required laser power.

        Speaker: Peter Kruyt (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 173
        Simulation study of nanosecond pulse power based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line

        On-axis injection mode is planned to use in the Southern Advanced Photon Source (SAPS), which requires high quality to injection pulsed power supply. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (GNLTL) is introduced as a pulse compressor to meet the needs for pulse width. In this paper, 3-D finite element model is established based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and Maxwell’s equations. The influence of geometrical sizes and bias magnetic field to output pulse is analyzed for better design of NLTL. A prototype was built with nanosecond pulse width and sub-nanosecond rise time to verify the simulation.

        Speaker: Wenbin Zhang (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 174
        Simulations of an electro-optical in-vacuum bunch profile monitor and measurements at KARA for use in the FCC-ee

        The Karlsruhe Research Accelerator (KARA) is an electron storage ring for accelerator research and the synchrotron of the KIT light source at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). KARA features an electro-optical (EO) in-vacuum bunch profile monitor to measure the longitudinal bunch profile in single shot on a turn-by-turn basis using electro-optical spectral decoding (EOSD). A simulation procedure has been set up to evaluate its suitability as a beam instrumentation for the operation of the future electron-position collider FCC-ee. In order to assess the simulations, this contribution focuses on a comparison to EO sampling (EOS) measurements at KARA and a study on the heat load of the EO crystal due to the expected high bunch repetition rate envisioned for FCC-ee.

        Speaker: Micha Reissig (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
      • 175
        Simulations of simultaneous measurement of GHz bunches using a fast kicker

        High quality electron bunch trains enable investigations in scientific frontiers with high resolution and efficiency and are earnestly desired by various accelerator facilities, including inverse Compton scattering (ICS), high energy computed tomography, and free electron lasers. An average beam flux can be greatly increased by using the bunch train mode. A bunch train with an average current of 1 A is required in the future steady-state microbunching light source with a bunch spacing of 350 ps (2856 MHz). It is essential to measure each bunch in a bunch train and ensure that each bunch has roughly the same quality. Thus, we proposed utilizing a fast kicker to measure different bunches simultaneously. Different bunches get varying deflection angles by utilizing the kicker's rapidly rising edge, and eventually, different bunches can be measured simultaneously. The measuring methods of real space bunches profile, bunch energy, longitudinal phase space, and its corresponding simulation results are presented.

        Speaker: Xiao-Yang Zhang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 176
        SiPM integration testing for FACET-II pair spectrometer

        A pair spectrometer, designed to capture single-shot gamma spectra over a range extending from 10 MeV through 10 GeV, is being developed at UCLA for installation at SLAC’s FACET-II facility. Gammas are converted to electrons and positions via pair production in a beryllium target and are then subsequently magnetically analyzed. These charged particles are then recorded in an array of quartz Cherenkov cells attached to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). As the background environment is challenging, both in terms of ionizing radiation and electromagnetic pulse radiation, extensive beamline testing is warranted. To this end, we present Geant4 Monte Carlo studies, assembly of the SiPMs, and future testing plans.

        Speaker: Jack Phillips (Particle Beam Physics Lab (PBPL))
      • 177
        Slow longitudinal mode 1 instability in electron storage rings with harmonic cavities

        Recent studies have investigated a longitudinal instability that may develop in electron storage rings featuring higher-harmonic cavities. The instability, also referred to as periodic transient beam loading (PTBL), manifests as a slow oscillation of bunch longitudinal profiles following a coupled-bunch mode 1 pattern. In this contribution, we applied a well-established theory of longitudinal mode-coupling to assess the thresholds for this instability. Results obtained through this semi-analytical approach, considering different storage ring and harmonic cavity parameters, were validated using macroparticle tracking and compared against other methods proposed in previous investigations.

        Speaker: Murilo Alves (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory)
      • 178
        SRF cavity fault prediction using deep learning at Jefferson Lab

        In this study, we present a deep learning-based pipeline for predicting superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity faults in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. We leverage pre-fault RF signals from C100-type cavities and employ deep learning to predict faults in advance of their onset. We train a binary classifier model to distinguish between stable and impending fault signals, where each cryomodule has a uniquely trained model. Test results show accuracies exceeding 99% in each of the six models for distinguishing between normal signals and pre-fault signals from a class of more slowly developing fault types, such as microphonics-induced faults. We describe results from a proof-of-principle demonstration on a realistic, imbalanced data set and report performance metrics. Encouraging results suggest that future SRF systems could leverage this framework and implement measures to mitigate the onset in more slowly developing fault types.

        Speaker: Monibor Rahman (Old Dominion University)
      • 179
        SRF cavity instability detection with machine learning at CEBAF

        During the operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), one or more unstable superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities often cause beam loss trips while the unstable cavities themselves do not necessarily trip off. The present RF controls for the legacy cavities report at only 1 Hz, which is too slow to detect fast transient instabilities during these trip events. These challenges make the identification of an unstable cavity out of the hundreds installed at CEBAF a difficult and time-consuming task. To tackle these issues, a fast data acquisition system (DAQ) for the legacy SRF cavities has been developed, which records the sample at 5 kHz. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach is being developed to identify anomalous SRF cavity behavior. We will discuss the present status of the DAQ system and PCA model, along with initial performance metrics. Overall, our method offers a practical solution for identifying unstable SRF cavities, contributing to increased beam availability and facility reliability.

        Speaker: Hal Ferguson (Old Dominion University)
      • 180
        Status of coil-dominated discrete-cosine-theta quadrupole prototype for high rigidity isotope beams

        Iron-dominated superconducting magnets are one of the most popular and used design choices for superconducting magnetic quadrupoles for accelerator systems. While the iron yoke and pole tips are economic and effective in shaping the field, the large amount of iron also leads to certain drawbacks, namely, unwanted harmonics from the sextupole correctors nested inside of quadrupole iron pole tips. Additional problems include the nonlinear field profile present in the high-field regime caused by the presence of steel, the cryogenic design challenges of the iron yoke being part of the cold mass, and the mechanical challenges of mounting the sextupole and octupole, which will generate significant forces for apertures of the size being proposed. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is developing a coil dominated quadrupole as a future upgrade, and the presented work discusses the advantages of using an iron-free quadrupole, along with the methods and choices of the design and the current status of prototype fabrication. The methods and work presented will include the model results and the aspects of the model that have been verified up to the current status of prototype fabrication.

        Speaker: David Greene (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)
      • 181
        Study and simulation of cryogenic photonic-band-gap disk-loaded structure

        In order to enhance the accelerating gradient of accelerators, cryogenic accelerating structures have been investigated. Based on material characteristics and technical conditions, a fundamental design has been accomplished. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures employ a lattice of rods to impede the propagation of RF field through the lattice at specific frequencies while effectively damping higher order modes. The design of the single-cell PBG structure has been refined by altering the shape of the rods surrounding the defect region in order to miti-gate peak surface magnetic field within the structure. The combination of PBG cells and a bi-periodic accelerating structure has resulted in the design of a novel structure. This innovative configuration possesses the advantageous characteristics of a bi-periodic structure while incorporating the additional functionality of a PBG structure to effectively damping higher order modes.

        Speaker: Dinghui Su (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 182
        Study of the beam-beam interaction in an electron-positron collider with large Piwinski angle and crabbed waist

        To achieve very high luminosity, the next generation circular colliders adopt the crab waist collision scheme with a large Piwinski angle. In this scheme, beams collide with high current, low emittances, and small beta functions at the interaction point (IP). However, several effects arising from these extreme parameters, especially the coherent X-Z instability, will significantly impact the collider's performance, necessitating dynamic processing of longitudinal motion in a three-dimensional self-consistent treatment. The transverse vibration becomes coupled with the longitudinal motion, as well as the increase in horizontal beam size alters the interaction between beams and corresponding beam-induced effects. These instabilities limit the stable high luminosity area for the selected working point of the original design. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the safe area of the working point by readjusting the parameters of the IP.In this paper, based on the Super Tau-Charm Facility (STCF) project in China, the instability caused by beam interactions is studied through numerical simulation. The relationship between the parameters at the IP and the stable selection area of the working point is systematically explored. The regularities found from simulations can assist future high luminosity electron-positron colliders in selecting the corresponding parameters. Additionally, some methods, such as adding adjustable devices to achieve stable high luminosity, are also proposed.

        Speaker: Sangya Li (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 183
        Superconducting thin films on higher order mode antennas to increase the CW performance of SRF cavities at MESA

        The Mainz Energy-Recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA), an energy-recovering (ER) LINAC, is currently under construction at the Institute for Nuclear physics at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany. In the ER mode continues wave (CW) beam is accelerated from 5 MeV up to 105 MeV. The energy gain of the beam is provided through 2 enhanced ELBE-type cryomodules containing two 1.3 GHz 9-cell TESLA cavities each. By pushing the limits of the beam current up to 10 mA, a quench can occur at the HOM Antennas. The quench is caused through the increased power deposition induced by the electron beam in ER mode. Calculation shown that an upgrade from 1 mA to 10 mA is increasing the deposited power in the HOMs up to 3080 mW. 30% of this power will be out coupled with the HOM couplers and can be used as a thermal input. Simulations show a power limit of 95 mW which includes the power for 1 mA but is exceeded at 10 mA. A solution to increase the power limit are superconducting thin films which provides higher critical fields, temperature and currents. As candidates are Nb3Sn and NbTiN are chosen. First simulations of the power limit for coated HOM antennas are shown.

        Speaker: Paul Plattner (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
      • 184
        The design of a rocket based RF electron accelerator for space applications

        Beam Plasma Interactions Experiment (Beam-PIE) is a NASA sounding rocket experiment that successfully ran in November 2023. Beam-PIE used space as a laboratory to explore wave generation from a modulated electron beam in the ionosphere. Beam-PIE electron accelerator used a 10keV electron gun and a 5-GHz RF cavity, enabling the acceleration of the electron beam to a total energy of ~25–60 keV. The experiment was pulsed at VLF frequencies ranging from 5 to 500 kHz. The third parameter was duty cycle which ranged from 2.5% to 10%. In total, 32 different combinations of beam parameters were used and repeated every 32 seconds through the flight at various altitudes and background plasma conditions. Each of these different beam parameters ran for a ½-second beam pulse, separated by ½-second intervals when the beam was off. Beam-PIE was successful at generating plasma waves. We present an outline of the accelerator design, theoretical predictions, and experimental results of generated plasma waves. Results will be used to quantitatively test our understanding of beam-plasma-wave interactions in the space environment with applications to space communication and radiation belt remediation.

        Speaker: Mr Christopher Roper (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 185
        The FORTRESS beamline at Tsinghua university

        High-brightness photoinjectors generate low emittance, ultrashort electron beams that are capable of tracking dynamical states of matter with atomic-scale spatio-temporal resolutions via ultrafast electron scattering, as well as providing precisely-shaped electron beams for advanced acceleration research and large-scale facilities such as free-electron laser and inverse Compton scattering. In this paper, we report on the status of the newly constructed FORTRESS (Facility Of Relativistic Time-Resolved Electron Source and Scattering) beamline at Tsinghua University, which will be dedicated for studies of advanced electron sources and photocathodes, new electron beam manipulation and characterization methods, and ultrafast electron scattering applications. The layout, beam dynamics simulation, initial beam measurement results, as well as main hardware components will be discussed in detail.

        Speaker: Peng Lv (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 186
        The gamma activation measurements at Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source

        SLEGS is a Laser Compton Scattering gamma source. The gamma energy is 0.66 to 21.7 MeV, and the gamma flux is approximately 4.8e+5 to 1.5e+7 phs/s. Gamma activation method is used in beam flux monitor, medical isotpoe production and nuclear astrophysics in SLEGS. Gamma beam flux under different collimated apertures has been checked by gamma activation method by using various half-life nuclide targets with an online activation and offline measurement platform. It is consistent with the flux measured with direct method by the LaBr3 detector. The activation method will be uniquely advantageous for monitoring gamma beam with short-life nuclide in a short time.A series of potential medical isotopes giant resonance production cross sections are measured by gamma activation method, which will provide key data for medical isotopes production by photonuclear reactions. The p-nuclei’s photonuclear cross sections*, for example Ru, are measured by photoneutron and gamma activation, which can provide favorable data on the much larger abundance of 98Ru, 96Ru. The activation experiment of SLEGS provides a reliable option for different experimental research objectives in photonuclear physics.

        Speaker: Yuxuan Yang (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 187
        Thermal diffusivity and acoustic properties of Nb thin films studied by time-domain thermoreflectance

        The thermal diffusion and acoustic properties of Nb impacts the thermal management of devices incorporating Nb thin films such as superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities and superconducting high-speed electronic devices. The diffusion and acoustic properties of 200-800 nm thick Nb films deposited on Cu substrates were investigated using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). The films were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The grain size and thermal diffusivity increase with film thickness. The thermal diffusivity increased from 0.100± 0.002 cm2s-1 to 0.237± 0.002 cm2s-1 with the increase in film thickness from 200 nm (grain size 20±6 nm) to 800 nm (grain size 65±16 nm). Damped periodic photoacoustic signals are detected due to laser heating generated stress in the Nb film, which results in an acoustic pulse bouncing from the Nb/Cu and the Nb/vacuum interfaces. The period of the acoustic oscillation gives a longitudinal sound velocity of 3637.3 ms-1 inside the Nb films, which is in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

        Speaker: Md Obidul Islam (Old Dominion University)
      • 188
        Topology optimization of a dipole magnet using normalized gaussian network

        The precision of the proton therapy beam depends on maintaining high field quality in the magnet’s good field region. Iron yoke is employed in magnets to increase the magnetic field and reduce the fringe field. However, when providing a high magnetic field for transporting relatively high-energy particles, the saturation effect of the yoke can distort the field quality. To mitigate this effect, tuning holes and pole shape optimization are adopted in the iron yoke to adjust the magnetic flux, which helps in maintaining a higher field quality for particles with different energies. Optimizations are often limited by human expertise. In this paper, we use a topology optimization method that employs a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for the prototype design of an iron yoke in a dipole magnet. To achieve a smooth distribution of material, we represent the shape of the iron yoke using a normalized Gaussian network. This method effectively mitigates the field error at different energy levels. Shape optimization is performed to compare it with topology optimization. It is suitable for the application of topology optimization in the beam line system for the proton therapy system.

        Speaker: Jie Li (Peking University)
      • 189
        Tracking study of the bimodal RF cavity for storage ring light source

        Beam lengthening is an effective and commonly used method to improving the beamlife of storage rings. Based on the previously proposed design of a room temperature conducting bimodal RF cavity. we conducted relevant dynamic simulations. Tracking study on a simulated storage ring lattice with the beam energy of 2 GeV and the synchronous radiation energy of 357 KeV, the results show that, the bimodal RF cavity which contains an accelerating field and a third harmonic field can effectively lengthen beam length, the beam lengthening effect similar to the double RF system which consists of main RF cavity and third harmonic cavity.

        Speaker: Dinghui Su (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics)
      • 190
        Two slit emittance measurement with thermal emittance isolation for an SRF injector

        This study focuses on the beam source for the LCLS-II-HE Low Emittance Injector (LEI) design: a state-of-the-art superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) gun. The LEI is intended to enable extending the LCLS-II-HE’s useful photon energy to 20 keV without additional cryomodules. We consider a robust two-slit emittance measurement optimized for the LEI SRF gun, compatible with the current LEI gun-to-linac beamline design, and extensible to measuring photocathode mean transverse energy (MTE) with the cathode at or below 4 K. In-situ measurement of photocathode MTE, and evolution thereof, could help optimize the overall performance of the LEI.
        A two-slit method enables determination of the detailed phase-space distribution of the electron bunch, beyond the normal Twiss parameters and emittance provided by methods such as solenoid scans. Additionally, we investigate the RF emittance by recessing the cathode. This allows us to study the influence of the RF field on the bunch phase space.
        In summary, our work introduces a cutting-edge two-slit emittance measurement methodology that combines different emittance-dampening techniques to isolate intrinsic emittance from the photocathode. Detailed results will be presented at the workshop to highlight established trends, dependencies, and a summary/concept of the future photocathode characterization beamline implementation.

        Speaker: Mr Benjamin Sims (Michigan State University)
      • 191
        Unifying coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield and classical radiation reaction

        We develop an alternative theory of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefield using the transverse field solution of Maxwell equations in angular domain. This approach allows us to retain only the radiative interaction between particles and cure the frequently encountered divergence in retarded potentials. We analyze the classical radiation reaction force and mass renormalization induced by the CSR self-field. Futhermore, we illustrate our theory by explicitly calculating the steady-state CSR wakefield of a wiggler.

        Speaker: Zhuoyuan Liu (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 192
        Updates on the Cornell cryo-MTE-meter beamline

        A critical factor in determining the limit of the brightness of an electron beam is the mean transverse energy (MTE) of its source, which describes the spread in transverse momentum of electrons at the moment of emission from the source. To increase beam brightness, there has been much work in growing novel photocathodes with low MTE and high quantum efficiency (QE) near threshold photoemission excitation energies. Therefore, it is important to have a testing platform for accurately measuring the MTE of a cathode over a range of cryogenic temperatures and photoexcitation energies, with self-consistent results across multiple measurement techniques. Here, we will discuss the characterization and operation of the Cornell Cryo-MTE-Meter beamline which aims to fulfill these criteria for a robust photocathode testing platform.

        Speaker: Charles Zhang (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 193
        Waveguide system for an SRF cryomodule in KEK

        A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodule (CM) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) Technology Network (ITN) is being developed at KEK. In the scope of this, a waveguide system is being designed. Its main features are a low center of gravity, a reduced number of corners and waveguide elements, and a compact bellow for connecting it to the input power coupler. Furthermore, the waveguide layout was designed to stay within the CM. This will avoid interference between components in the case of a multi-CM assembly. It is planned to adapt both the waveguide system and the installation process for the ITN.
        Analytical calculations and simulations have shown that most of the reflected power is dissipated in the load of the variable hybrid on removing the circulator. Thus, in the initial layout of the waveguide, the circulator is strategically installed to allow a future replacement with an H-corner integrated with a directional coupler, without disrupting the other waveguide components. Furthermore, a low-power test on a similar waveguide system showed that analytical calculations and simulation matched the measured values well.

        Speaker: Prakash Joshi (Sokendai, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies)
    • 6:00 PM
      Welcome Reception
    • Opening Broadway Ballroom (Omni Hotel)

      Broadway Ballroom

      Omni Hotel

      250 Rep. John Lewis Way South, Nashville, TN 37203
      Convener: Fulvia Pilat (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
    • Plenary before coffee Broadway Ballroom (Omni Hotel)

      Broadway Ballroom

      Omni Hotel

      250 Rep. John Lewis Way South, Nashville, TN 37203
      Convener: Fulvia Pilat (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 194
        Journey to world’s highest power hadron beams at SNS

        The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator is the highest power proton accelerator in the world, operating with over 1.4 MW with high reliability. Commissioned in 2006, it took thirteen years to achieve the 1.4 MW design goal of the facility and required overcoming tremendous technological challenges. The SNS path to high power has significantly influenced the outlook for future of high-power accelerators. This talk will describe the innovative journey to high power and the lessons learned along the way, and will close with a preview of SNS’s future beyond 1.4 MW.

        Speaker: Sarah Cousineau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 195
        Accelerator-based isotope production

        The World-wide accelerator-based isotope production for research as well as medical and industrial applications is growing. Aside the use of isotopes in fundamental research, their medical use is widely known, and isotopes enjoy growing importance in many fields. Isotopes are used in inter disciplinary research as tracers to examine the trace flow of nutrients and pollutants in the environment for instance. Isotopes are also used to characterize newly designed materials and the behavior of nano-structured materials that play a key role in modern electronics devices.
        The production and investigation of short lived isotopes, also known as rare-isotopes, is mainly based on accelerators using different nuclear reactions. This talk gives an overview of the accelerators used for isotope production, the relevant performance parameters, and new trends that drive the technology development and physics understanding of these accelerators.

        Speaker: Oliver Kester (TRIUMF)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee Break Nashville (TN)



      250 Rep. John Lewis Way South, Nashville, TN 37203
    • Plenary after coffee Broadway Ballroom (Omni Hotel)

      Broadway Ballroom

      Omni Hotel

      250 Rep. John Lewis Way South, Nashville, TN 37203
      Convener: Katherine Harkay (Argonne National Laboratory)
      • 196
        Sustainable accelerator concepts and technologies

        Sustainability of accelerators construction and operation is becoming a driver for new accelerators at the high-energy and beam power frontier. The ICFA Panel on Sustainable Accelerators and Colliders assesses and promotes developments on energy efficient and sustainable accelerator concepts, technologies, and strategies for operation, and assess and promote the use of accelerators for the development of Carbon-neutral energy sources. This talk gives an overview of the world-wide efforts, notable accomplishments to date, and trends that will shape the construction and operation of future large accelerators.

        Speaker: Thomas Roser (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 197
        Novel undulators: the long and winding road to brightness

        Storage rings and free electron lasers use undulators to produce high-brilliant X-ray photon beams. In order to increase brilliance and photon energy tunability it is necessary to enhance the undulator magnetic peak field on axis by reducing its period without decreasing the electron beam stay clear. Undulator technologies aiming to reach this goal are presented.

        Speaker: Sara Casalbuoni (European XFEL GmbH)
      • 198
        Photocathodes: a fundamental tool for enabling new accelerator-based science

        We will review of the current state of the advanced photocathode material development and structures necessary for production of electron beams with high brightness, high charge, and electron spin polarization.

        Speaker: Matt Poelker (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch Break Nashville (TN)



    • MOZD: Beam Dynamics and Electromagnetic Fields (Invited) Davidson Ballroom

      Davidson Ballroom

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
      Convener: Tadashi Koseki (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization)
      • 199
        New advances in optical stochastic cooling

        Recently, Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) became the first demonstrated method for ultra-high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. The initial experiments at Fermilab’s IOTA ring explored the essential physics of the method and demonstrated cooling, heating and manipulation of beams and single particles. Having been validated in practice, with continued development, OSC carries the potential for dramatic advances in the state-of-the-art performance and flexibility for beam cooling and control. The ongoing program at Fermilab is now focused on the development of an OSC system that includes high-gain optical amplification, which promises a two-order-of-magnitude increase in the strength of the OSC force. In this talk, we briefly review the results of the initial experimental campaign, describe the status of the conceptual and hardware designs for the amplified OSC system, report initial experimental results of our high-gain amplifier development, and explore near-term operational plans and use cases.

        Speaker: Jonathan Jarvis (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 200
        A novel Vlasov approach for modeling electron cloud instabilities

        This presentation discusses the generalization of the two-dimensional impedance model in the presence of an electron cloud. It will be discussed the implementation of a linear model of the e-cloud forces including both dipolar and quadrupolar forces to improve the modeling of the electron cloud instabilities. The linear model is included in the Vlasov equation, which allows for finding unstable modes. Benchmarking with conventional macro-particle tracking codes by also implementing the same linear model is discussed for negative, low, as well as large chromaticity. It is found that the instability modes by Vlasov agree well with those of the macro-particle simulations, using the same linear model for negative and low chromaticity. For large-chromaticity, the mode visible in the macro-particle simulations is among the unstable Vlasov modes. The present status of the checks with impedance-driven instabilities is being discussed also including recent benchmarking against tracking simulations and measurements.

        Speaker: Sofia Johannesson (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
    • MOZN: Photon Sources and Electron Accelerators (Invited) Room 104

      Room 104

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
      Convener: Alessandro Fabris (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.)
      • 201
        Next 10 years of light sources

        Synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers (FELs) have established as powerful research tools in various disciplines, as physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and medicine. During the last decade new developments and advancements, leading to construction of new facilities and upgrades to existing ones, have allowed to further extend their capabilities to drive scientific progress. This paper explores the emerging and future trends and perspectives in synchrotron light sources and FELs, including novel accelerator and component designs and advances in technology, with a perspective over the next decade. The scientific and technological challenges needed for the design and construction are discussed together with the strategies and innovation necessary, also considering how key societal challenges, such as sustainable energy management and advanced manufacturing, are addressed.

        Speaker: Timur Shaftan (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 202
        On the production of short X-ray pulses at diffraction-limited light sources, an update and recent developments

        The last decade has seen a renaissance of machine physics studies and technological advancements worldwide which aim at upgrading storage ring light sources to the diffraction limit up to few hundreds of keV photon energy. This is expected to improve the spectral brightness and the transversally coherent fraction of photons by several orders of magnitude in the X-ray wavelength range. This is done, however, at the expense of pulse durations typically longer than 80 ps FWHM. We discuss the compatibility of proposed and established schemes for the generation of (sub-)picosecond photon pulses durations with standard multi-bunch operation and, in particular, with diffraction-limited electron optics design. We then focus on the scheme of radio-frequency deflecting cavities generating a steady-state vertical deflection of selected electron bunches for the production of short pulses. The study demonstrates the feasibility of (sub-)picosecond long X-ray pulses at MHz repetition rate, provided simultaneously to several beamlines. The scheme provides flexibility in pulse duration, is transparent to standard multi-bunch operation, and is capable of largely preserving the transverse coherence of the emitted radiation.  Ultimate performance, limits and operational aspects of the scheme are analyzed in an integrated accelerator-plus-beamlines perspective.

        Speaker: Simone Di Mitri (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.)
    • MOCD: Accelerator Technology and Sustainability (Contributed) Davidson Ballroom

      Davidson Ballroom

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
      Convener: Peter McIntosh (Science and Technology Facilities Council)
      • 203
        X-band high gradient accelerating structure for VIGAS project at Tsinghua university

        A light source project named Very Compact Inverse Compton Gamma-ray Source (VIGAS) is under development at Tsinghua University. VIGAS aims to generate monochromatic high-energy gamma rays by colliding a 350 MeV electron beam with a 400-nm laser. To produce a high-energy electron beam in a compact accelerator with a length shorter than 12 meters, the system consists of an S-band high-brightness injector and six X-band high-gradient accelerating structures. The X-band structure’s frequency is 11.424 GHz, and it adopts a constant gradient traveling wave approach; thus, the iris from the first cell to the end cell is tapered. The total cell number is 72, so we named it XT72. In the last two years, we conducted the design, fabrication, and tuning of the first prototype of XT72. Recently, we finished the high-power test, and the result demonstrates that it has the ability to work at an 80 MV/m gradient. In this paper, we present the latest update on this structure.

        Speaker: Mr Qingzhu Li (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 204
        Multi-mode cavity design and characterization

        We present the design and initial characterization of a multi-mode cavity, a novel electromagnetic structure with potential benefits such as compactness, efficiency, and cost reduction. The 2nd Harmonic mode was chosen to linearize the fundamental mode for use as an accelerating and bunching cavity. The reduction in the number of cavities required to bunch and accelerate promises cost and space savings over conventional approaches. Superfish and COMSOL simulations were used to optimize the cavity's geometry with the goal of balancing various design parameters, such as quality factor (Q-factor), harmonic modes, and mode coupling. A 3D-printed copper-plated cavity was used to validate code predictions.
        The cavity's multi-mode nature positions it for use with other harmonic modes with small deviations in design. For example, a 3rd Harmonic can be used to decrease energy spread by widening the peak of the fundamental. This research lays the foundation for further exploration of the cavity's applications and optimization for specific use cases, with potential implications for a wide range of accelerator fields.

        Speaker: Mr Benjamin Sims (Michigan State University)
      • 205
        LCLS-II-HE cavity acceptance testing progress

        LCLS-II-HE is an ongoing project to upgrade SLAC's superconducting linac. The upgrade will add 23 cryomodules with a total of 192 nine-cell 1.3 GHz nitrogen-doped niobium cavities. The production and qualification testing of these cavities is nearly complete. To date, they have achieved an average maximum gradient of 27.0±3.5 MV/m and an average Q0 of 3.24±0.38e+10 at the nominal operating gradient (21 MV/m). Here we present an update of the performance statistics and an outlook on the final stages of cavity qualification. We also report on issues and lessons learned during the industrial production process.

        Speaker: James Maniscalco (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
    • MOCN: Beam Instrumentation, Controls, Feedback and Operational Aspects (Contributed) Room 104

      Room 104

      Music City Center

      201 Rep. John Lewis Way S, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
      Convener: Adriana Rossi (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 206
        Performance of a longitudinal bunch by bunch feedback in a system with a passive harmonic cavity

        While designed to be inherently stable, the accelerator upgrade SLS 2.0 will have a longitudinal multi-bunch feedback system, to be used as a diagnostics device and as a fallback against unexpected problems. Modelling the performance of the system is complicated by the presence of a passive harmonic cavity introduced for longer bunch lengths and correspondingly higher stability thresholds, which has the following effects: the voltage of the harmonic cavity varies with the beam current leading to a variation of the synchronous frequency, specially pronounced in the initial injection at very low currents. Even at full current, the presence of the ion clearing gap provokes transients in the main and harmonic system leading to a transient variation of the synchronous frequency over the bunch train. Another effect of the RF transients is a variation in the synchronous phase over the bunch train, which leads to cross talk effects, the open loop gain starts to vary with the order of the coupled bunch oscillation. The feedback filter needs to take account of all these effects for a satisfactory performance.

        Speaker: Micha Dehler (Paul Scherrer Institut)
      • 207
        Direct RF sampling based LLRF control system for C-band linear accelerator

        Low Level RF (LLRF) control systems of linear accelerators (LINACs) are typically implemented with heterodyne based architectures, which have complex analog RF mixers for up and down conversion. The Gen 3 RF System-on-Chip (RFSoC) device from AMD Xilinx integrates data converters with maximum RF frequency of 6 GHz. That enables direct RF sampling of C-band LLRF signal typically operated at 5.712 GHz without RF mixers, which can significantly simplify the system architecture. The data converters sample RF signals in higher order Nyquist zones and then up or down converted digitally by the integrated data path. The closed-loop feedback control firmware implemented in FPGA integrated in RFSoC can process the baseband signal from the ADC data path and calculate the updated phase and amplitude to be up-mixed by the DAC data path. We have developed an LLRF control RFSoC platform, which targets Cool Copper Collider (C3) and other C or S band LINAC research and development projects. In this paper, the architecture of the platform and the test results for some of the key performance parameters, such as phase and amplitude stability with our custom solid-state amplifier, will be described.

        Speaker: Chao Liu (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 208
        First testing results of an improved multi-dimensional bunch shape monitor

        Measuring longitudinal beam parameters is key for the operation and development of high-intensity linear accelerators but is notoriously difficult for ion beams at non-relativistic energies. The Bunch Shape Monitor (BSM) is a device used for measuring the longitudinal bunch distribution in a hadron linac. RadiaBeam has developed a BSM prototype with enhanced performance, integrating several key innovations. Firstly, to improve the collection efficiency, we introduced a focusing field between the target wire and the entrance slit. Secondly, we implemented a novel design of the RF deflector to enhance beam linearity. Finally, the design was enriched by incorporating a mechanism that allows moving both the wire and deflector cavity enabling the functionality of transverse profile measurements. In this paper, we present the process of fabricating, assembling, and beam tests of the BSM prototype at the SNS facility.

        Speaker: Aurora Cecilia Araujo Martinez (RadiaBeam Technologies)
    • Monday Poster Session: MOPC Country (MCC Exhibit Hall A)


      MCC Exhibit Hall A

      • 209
        A new baseline layout for the FCC-hh ring

        The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study includes two accelerators, a high-energy lepton collider (FCC-ee) and an energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh). Both machines share the same tunnel infrastructure. We present the current design status of FCC-hh, highlighting the most recent changes, including a new layout following updated tunnel dimensions, a change from 12 to 16 dipoles per cell increasing the dipole filling factor, implementation of the beam crossing scheme at experimental interaction points, and the optical solutions found for the eight experimental and technical insertions.

        Speaker: Gustavo Perez-Segurana (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 210
        A study for emittance growth compensation by space charge effects at the injector of KEK-STF after dry ice cleaning of the RF gun

        The Round to Flat Beam Transformation (RFBT) is one of the emittance exchange techniques that can improve the Luminosity for the future accelerator project International Linear collider (ILC). RFBT experiment can be conducted in the KEK-STF, and the expected performance is 334 in emittance ratio. In December 2023, we performed a pilot experiment at STF to optimize the injector conditions. To improve the RF Gun of STF, we applied dry ice cleaning to reduce the field emission. The field enhancement factor was improved from 233 to 100.

        Speaker: Sayantan Mukherjee (Hiroshima University)
      • 211
        Advancing electron injection dynamics and mitigation approaches in the Electron-Ion Collider’s swap-out injection scheme

        The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will use swap-out injection scheme for the Electron Storage Ring (ESR) to overcome limitations in polarization lifetime. However, the pursuit of highest luminosity with the required $28~\mathrm{nC}$ electron bunches encounters stability challenges in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). One method is to inject multiple RCS bunches into a same ESR bucket. In this paper we perform simulation studies investigating proton emittance growth and electron emittance blowup in this injection scheme. Mitigation strategies are explored. These findings promise enhanced EIC stability and performance, shaping potential future operational improvements.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 212
        Assessing global crabbing scheme feasibility for Electron-Ion Collider

        The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) plans to utilize the local crabbing crossing scheme. This paper explores the feasibility of adopting a single crab cavity with adjusted voltage, inspired by the successful global crabbing scheme in KEKB, to restore effective head-on collisions. Using weak-strong simulations, the study assesses the potential of this global crabbing scheme for the EIC while emphasizing the need for adiabatic cavity ramping to prevent luminosity loss. Additionally, the research outlines potential risks associated with beam dynamics in implementing this scheme.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 213
        BAGELS: A general method for minimizing the rate of radiative depolarization in electron storage rings

        We present a novel method for minimizing the effects of radiative depolarization in electron storage rings by use of vertical orbit bumps in the arcs. Electron polarization is directly characterized by the RMS of the so-called spin orbit coupling function in the bends. In the Electron Storage Ring (ESR) of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), as was the case in HERA, this function is excited by the spin rotators. Individual vertical orbit bumps in the arcs can have varying impacts on this function globally. In this method, we use a singular value decomposition of the response matrix of the spin-orbit coupling function with each orbit bump to define a minimal number of most effective groups of bumps, motivating the name “Best Adjustment Groups for ELectron Spin” (BAGELS) method. These groups can then be used to minimize the depolarizing effects in an ideal lattice, and to restore the minimization in rings with realistic closed orbit distortions. Furthermore, BAGELS can be used to construct groups for other applications where a minimal impact on polarization is desirable, e.g. global coupling compensation or vertical emittance creation. Application of the BAGELS method has significantly increased the polarization in simulations of the 18 GeV ESR, beyond achievable with conventional methods.

        Speaker: Matthew Signorelli (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 214
        Beam commissioning of the EIC with detector

        The high-luminosity, 10e+33 — 10e+34 cm-2s-1 (e-p), Electron-Ion Collider is presently being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in partnership with the Jefferson Laboratory. Beam commissioning is planned right after the installation is complete and after passing all necessary reviews, including the Accelerator Readiness Reviews. Initially, the detector performance testing and commissioning, conducted without a beam utilizing cosmic radiation, will occur in the assembly hall area of IP-6. Subsequently, after demonstrating beam collisions at low electron and proton beam intensities and fine-tuning the lattice and beam parameters, the detector will be integrated into the collider for beam commissioning. Our focus encompasses commissioning sequences, optimization of collimators in response to background conditions, and machine parameter adjustments to achieve optimal luminosity and polarization, all aimed at optimizing the detector’s performance in response to the beam.

        Speaker: Alexei Blednykh (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL))
      • 215
        Beam loss mitigation in H- linac

        Charge-exchange injection is a key to overcome the Liouville's theorem and to get over the intensity barrier. Specifically negative hydrogen linac injector for a ring is mostly used to obtain high intensity pulsed proton beam for high-energy physics or neutron application. However, different from proton linac, beam loss due to stripping can be a significant issue. For instance, the intra-beam stripping (IBSt) can be the dominant source of residue radiation in a high-intensity H- linac. IBSt rate can be only affected by focusing structure. It is of interests in J-PARC linac, which has an original equi-partition design and flexibility to manipulate a considerable range. The H0 resulting from stripping generates a broad loss pattern, which is sensitive to the aperture. We studied the dependencies and achieved consistency between simulation and measurements from beam loss monitors and residue radiation, and found a systematic way for beam loss mitigation for operation. We successfully removed abnormal hot spots and mitigate the total residue radiation by half. These results provide insights into optimizing existing H- linac performance as well as design strategies of future H- linacs.

        Speaker: Yong Liu (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization)
      • 216
        Bunch compression with a beam energy control unit consisting of DBA structures

        The bunch-to-bunch energy control of the electron beam is crucial in the continuous wave XFEL facility. Recently, a delay system based on Double Bend Achromat (DBA) was proposed for the SHINE linear accelerator to achieve this goal. On this basis, we further optimize this structure to realize the bunch compression/decompression while maintaining the electron beam qualities. Here, we will discuss the related lattice design and strat-to-end simulations.

        Speaker: Liuyang Wu (Shanghai Advanced Research Institute)
      • 217
        Capture cavities for the CW polarized positron source Ce⁺BAF

        The initial design of the capture cavities for a continuous wave (CW) polarized positron beam for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) upgrade at Jefferson Lab is presented. A chain of standing wave multi-cell copper cavities inside a solenoid tunnel are selected to bunch/capture positrons in CW mode. The capture efficiency is studied with varying cavity gradients and phases. The heating load from the incoming particle radiation shower and RF field will limit the achievable gradients, especially the first cavity. The cooling method and results are shown. The beam loading cancellation from positrons and electrons are investigated.

        Speaker: Shaoheng Wang (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 218
        Commissioning results of third C75 cryomodule for CEBAF

        The program to upgrade CEBAF cryomodules has been implemented to enhance the energy gain of refurbished cryomodules up to 75 MeV. This strategy involves reusing the waveguide end-groups from original CEBAF cavities produced in the 1990s, and existing five elliptical cell cavities are replaced with a new optimized cell shape cavity constructed from large-grain, ingot Nb material. Following fabrication, each cavity undergoes centrifugal barrel polishing and electropolishing and then is tested at 2.07 K. Eight cavities are then assembled into "cavity pairs" and tested at 2.07 K before integration into the cryomodule. This paper presents the outcomes of the cavity qualification for the third C75 module, providing a detailed account of the assessment in both a vertical cryostat and the commissioning results of the cryomodule. Furthermore, efforts have been made to address performance limitations arising from field emission and multipacting.

        Speaker: Iresha Senevirathne (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 219
        Computational simulations and beamline optimizations for an electron beam degrader at CEBAF

        An electron beam degrader is under development with the objective of measuring the transverse and longitudinal acceptance of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. This project is in support of the CE+BAF positron capability. Computational simulations of beam-target interactions and particle tracking were performed integrating the GEANT4 and Elegant toolkits. A solenoid was added to the setup to control the beam's divergence. Parameter optimization of the solenoid field and magnetic quadrupoles gradient was also performed to further reduce particle loss through the rest of the injector beamline.

        Speaker: Victor Lizárraga-Rubio (Universidad de Guanajuato)
      • 220
        Correction of the detector solenoid effect in the hadron storage ring of the Electron-Ion Collider

        The Electron Ion Collider design strategy for reaching unprecedented luminosities and detection capabilities involves collision of flat bunches at a relatively large crossing angle. Effective head-on collisions are restored using crab cavities, which introduce a correlation of the particles' transverse coordinates with their longitudinal positions in the bunch, or crab dispersion. The collision geometry is further complicated by a tilt of the Electron Storage Ring plane with respect to that of the Hadron Storage Ring. In addition, the interaction point is placed inside the field of a detector solenoid. Reaching the design luminosity requires precise control of the 6D bunch distribution at the IP accounting for all of the aforementioned design features. This paper describes correction of the detector solenoid effect on the beam optics of the Hadron Storage Ring using a combination of local and global skew quadrupoles.

        Speaker: Vasiliy Morozov (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 221
        Correlating start-of-ramp losses with beam observables at blat-bottom in the LHC

        Power limitations are expected at injection energy for the main Radio Frequency (RF) system due to the doubled bunch intensity in the High Luminosity (HL-) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era. One way to overcome these power limitations is to reduce the capture voltage. The smaller RF bucket, however, leads to increased beam losses at the start of the ramp. In practice, these beam losses, which contain both capture and flat-bottom losses, can trigger beam dumps if any of the Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) thresholds are reached. In this contribution, the correlation between start-of-ramp beam loss and beam observables before the ramp is investigated by analysing Beam Current Transformer (BCT) measurements from physics fills. Estimates of how the maximum ratio to BLM dump threshold scales with longitudinal losses are also made. The aim is to make predictions for operation at higher bunch intensities on the basis of these correlations in view of the intensity ramp up for the HL-LHC era.

        Speaker: Michail Zampetakis (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 222
        Crossing angle implementation for luminosity maximization in a narrow vertex region in RHIC operation

        The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed for head-on collisions in the Interaction Regions. However, RHIC operation in recent years necessitated crossing angles to limit collisions to a narrow longitudinal vertex region, which created operating conditions with a large Piwinski angle (LPA). The angles were implemented by adjusting the shunt currents of four dipoles, the D0 and DX magnets, near the IP. The longitudinal bunch profile often deviates from Gaussian due to the utilization of high-order RF cavities, adding complexity to calculating luminosity reduction with crossing angle. This paper introduces two methods for implementing crossing angles, discusses resultant aperture concerns, conducts numerical calculations of luminosity reduction, and compares these findings with experimental observations.

        Speaker: Chuyu Liu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 223
        Design and status of SHINE injector

        Shanghai HIgh repetitioN rate XFEL and Extreme light facility (SHINE) is an x-ray FEL facility, consisting of an 8 GeV CW superconducting linac and 3 FEL undulator lines, covering the spectral ranges 0.4-25 keV. Photoinjector using VHF gun is one of the key part of the facility. The installation of the electron gun section of the SHINE injector has been completed in August 2023. RF conditioning and commissioning were carried out from September to December. In this paper, we will introduce the installation progress of the injector and show some commissioning results of the electron gun section.

        Speaker: Zenggong Jiang (Shanghai Advanced Research Institute)
      • 224
        Design and test of a S band TW buncher for the injector linac of HEPS

        The bunching system of injector Linac in High Energy Photon Source (HEPS) includes two sub-harmonic bunchers, a pre-buncher and a traveling wave S band buncher. The buncher is a 6-cell constant impedance traveling wave structure operating in 2π/3 mode at 2998.8 MHz. In this paper, the design and test of the traveling wave buncher are presented. First, the characteristic parameters are optimized in CST. Then the buncher is precisely tuned and cold tested with a vector network analyzer after fabrication. Finally, the high power test was finished before installation in Linac. The buncher can operate stably with input power of 10 MW after a week of conditioning. So far the buncher has been applied successfully in Linac of HEPS.

        Speaker: Zheng Sun (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 225
        Design of X-band distributed-coupling accelerating structure

        Distributed-coupling structures has been proposed as an advanced type of high-gradient accelerators, RF power flow independently into each cavity.This method has few advantages such as high shunt impedance, superior power efficiency, and low costs. And the most distributed-coupling structures typically set 0° or 180° as the phase advance which can simplify the design.In this study we introduces a new-designed distributed-coupling structures with phase advance greater than 180°. This choice of angle will significantly reduce costs without affecting the shunt impedance.

        Speaker: Mr Qingzhu Li (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 226
        Design Updates to the EIC Electron Storage Ring Lattice

        The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory will feature a 3.8-kilometer electron storage ring (ESR) that will circulate polarized beams with energies ranging from 5 to 18 GeV for collision with hadrons from a separate ring at luminosities up to 10^34 cm^{-2} s^{-1}. This contribution focuses on several recent changes to the lattice design of the ESR. Super-bend dipole triplets are used in the arc cells to increase the damping decrement and horizontal emittance at 5 GeV. Their lengths have recently been optimized to balance these two requirements. The interaction region has been modified to accommodate the requirements of a Compton polarimeter. Major changes have been made to IR8, which is the location of a possible second interaction region and detector that may be installed in a future upgrade. A design for a non-colliding IR8 has been developed that simplifies the setup to reduce initial costs and complexity. The latest lattice design of the ESR is presented here, and the major design choices are discussed.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 227
        Development of an S-band multi-beam accelerator for stationary CT application

        Stationary CT is a novel CT technology to significantly improve scanning speed, by using distributed multiple ray sources instead of conventional helical rotation with single source. This work presents an S-band multi-beam accelerator as a multiple MV-level X-ray source for industrial stationary CT application. This accelerator consists of 7 parallel-distributed acceleration cavity and 6 coupling cavity, operating in pi/2 standing-wave mode with a centre frequency of 2998MHz. This structure can generate 0.7 MeV electrons with 100 mA peak current at each beamline according to the imaging requirement. The novel multiple high-energy X-ray source will fill in the blank of source requirements in industrial stationary CT application.

        Speaker: Mr Qingzhu Li (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 228
        Development of FFA RLA design concept

        A single wide-momentum-acceptance FFA beam line allows for recirculating a beam several times through a linac. Such a scheme provides an efficient path towards high-energy, high-power continuous beams. This paper describes the development of a conceptual design of an FFA RLA focusing on but not limited to a high-power hadron beam case. We present a complete optics design including arc, linac, and matching sections. The matching sections are implemented following the adiabatic approach whereby matching of all beam passes occurs simultaneously within a single beam line. Harmonic correction is applied for precise orbit and optics control of the individual passes. We discuss approaches to optimization of the linac timing and control of the longitudinal beam dynamics.

        Speaker: Vasiliy Morozov (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
      • 229
        Development of normal conducting heavy ion linac in China

        Research on heavy ion linac was began more than ten years ago to improve the HIRFL operation. In China, the first continuous wave (CW) heavy ion linac, SSC Linac, working at 53.667 MHz was designed and constructed as the SSC injector. The ion particle can be accelerated to 1.48 MeV/u with the designed A/q=5.17. At present stage, this CW linac has been put into operation and the Uranium has been accelerated to 1.48 MeV/u successfully in the end of 2023. To meet the rising requirements of the applications, a compacter 162.5 MHz heavy ion linac operating in pulse mode was developed with A/q≤3. The “KONUS” beam dynamics was adopted in the IH-DTL design and the heavy ions can be accelerated to 4 MeV/u in 9 m length. The 108.48 MHz SESRI linac was another pulse machine which was built at Harbin. Both of the heavy ions and proton beam can be accelerated by this linac to 2 MeV/u and 5.6 MeV,respectively. In this paper, the status of these three heavy ion linacs and their beam commissioning results were reported.

        Speaker: Xuejun Yin (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 230
        Dust-induced beam losses in the Large Hadron Collider

        Since the start of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dust-induced beam loss events resulted in more than hundred premature beam aborts and more than ten dipole quenches during proton physics operation. The events are presumably caused by micrometer-sized dust grains, which are attracted by the proton beams and consequently give rise to beam losses due to inelastic proton-nucleus collisions. Besides the events which trigger dumps or quenches, a large number of smaller dust events has been detected by the beam loss monitors every year. Although these events are not detrimental for physics operation, they are still carefully scrutinized as they give a better understanding about the correlation with beam parameters, about the long-term evolution of event rates, and about possible correlations with shutdown activities and the installation of new equipment. In this contribution, we present a summary of observations from the first three runs of the LHC.

        Speaker: Philippe Belanger (University of British Columbia & TRIUMF)
      • 231
        Dynamic aperture of the EIC electron storage ring

        Design of the electron-ion collider (EIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to be optimized. Particularly, the collider storage ring lattices have been updated. Dynamic aperture of the evolving lattices must be kept sufficiently large, as required. In this paper, we discuss the collider Electron Storage Ring, where the lattice updates include improvements of the interaction region layout and arc dipole configuration, reduced number of magnet types, and changes related to the use of existing magnets. Optimization of non-linear chromaticity correction for an updated 18 GeV lattice and the latest estimates of dynamic aperture with errors are presented.

        Speaker: Matthew Signorelli (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 232
        Eddy current shielding of the magnetic field ripple in the EIC electron storage ring vacuum chambers

        The EIC electron storage ring has very tight tolerances for the amplitude of electron beam position and size oscillations at the interaction point. The oscillations at the proton betatron frequency and its harmonics are the most dangerous because they could lead to unacceptable proton emittance growth from the oscillating beam-beam kick from the electrons. To estimate the amplitude of these oscillations coming from the magnet power supply current ripple we need to accurately account for the eddy current shielding by the copper vacuum chamber with 4-mm thick wall. At the frequencies of interest, the skin depth is a small fraction of the wall thickness, so the commonly used single-pole expressions for eddy current shielding transfer function do not apply. In this paper we present new (to the best of our knowledge) analytical formulas that adequately describe the shielding for this frequency range and chamber geometry and discuss the implications for the power supply ripple specifications at high frequency.

        Speaker: Boris Podobedov (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 233
        Electromagnetic and beam dynamics modeling of LANSCE front-end elements with CST studio

        The front end of the 800-MeV proton linac at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is still based on Cockcroft-Walton voltage generators that bring proton and H- beams of various flavors to 750 keV. We have developed 3D CST models of the LANSCE front-end elements including low-frequency and main bunchers. The fields in these elements are calculated with MicroWave and ElectroMagnetic Studio. Beam dynamics is modeled with Particle Studio for beams with realistic charge distributions using the CST calculated fields. The modeling results provide insight into linac operations and a guidance for designing a modern, RFQ-based front end for the LANSCE linac.

        Speaker: Sergey Kurennoy (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 234
        Enhancing beam intensity in RHIC EBIS beamline via GPTune machine learning-driven optimization

        The utilization of machine learning techniques in accelerator research has yielded remarkable advancements in optimization strategies. This paper presents a pioneering study employing a machine learning algorithm, GPTune, to optimize beam intensity by adjusting parameters within the EBIS injection and extraction beam lines. Demonstrating significant enhancements, our research showcases a remarkable 22% and 70% improvements in beam intensity at two different measurement locations.

        Speaker: Xiaofeng Gu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 235
        Establishing a new class of high-current accelerator-driven neutron sources with the HBS Project

        Accelerator-driven high brilliance neutron sources are an attractive alternative to the classical neutron sources of fission reactors and spallation sources to provide scientists with neutrons. A new class of such neutron facilities has been established referred to as High-Current Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (HiCANS). The basic features of HiCANS are a medium-energy proton accelerator with of tens of MeV and up to 100 mA beam current, a compact neutron production and moderator unit and an optimized neutron transport system to provide a full suite of high performance, fast, epithermal, thermal and cold neutron instruments.
        The Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) has established a project to develop, design and demonstrate such a novel accelerator-driven facility termed High Brilliance neutron Source (HBS). The aim of the project is to build a versatile neutron source as a user facility. Embedded in an international collaboration, the HBS project offers the best flexible solutions for scientific and industrial users. The overall conceptual and technical design of the HBS as a blueprint for the HiCANS facility has been published in a series of recent reports.
        The status and next steps of the project will be presented, focusing on the high-current linear accelerator and the proton beamline, including a novel multiplexer to distribute the proton beam to three different neutron target stations while adapting a flexible pulse structure.

        Speaker: Klaus Kümpel (Goethe Universität Frankfurt)
      • 236
        Evolution of special LHC optics configurations Run 3 update

        The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) employs special optics and configurations, alongside low-beta collision optics, to address specific experimental requirements. These include calibrating luminosity monitors (vdM) and facilitating forward physics measurements in TOTEM and ALFA experiments (high-beta). The special optics have been in use since Run 1, and for Run 3, they have been updated for compatibility with standard low-beta collision optics to ensure streamlined commissioning and reduced setup time. For vdM optics in Run 3, beam de-squeezing yields beta values of 19 to 24 m, while in the high-beta optics, beams are de-squeezed to round beams with beta of 120 m, followed by a second step to asymmetric optics with beta of 3 km and 6 km in the horizontal and vertical planes. The 2023 high-beta optics run with the km beta* optics, incorporates tight collimation settings and the use of crystals at top energy for the first time, aiming to substantially reduce backgrounds in the experiments. This publication introduces and discusses the updated optics for Run 3, covering their validation, optics measurement results, and operational insights.

        Speaker: Ilias Efthymiopoulos (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 237
        Expanding the CERN ion injector chain capabilities: new beam dynamics simulation tools for future ion species

        The present ion physics program in the CERN accelerator complex is mainly based on lead (Pb82+) ion beams. Lighter ions have been considered both by the ALICE3 detector upgrade proposal at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) --- as a potential way to achieve higher integrated nucleon-nucleon luminosity compared to the present Pb beams --- and also by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) fixed-target experiment NA61/SHINE. However, there is little or no operational experience at CERN with ions species lighter than Pb. This calls for beam-brightness and intensity limitations studies to assess the performance capabilities of the CERN ion injector chain, which consists of LINAC3, the Low-Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the SPS. This paper presents tracking simulation resu
        lts for the SPS, compared against recent Pb beam emittance and beam loss measurements at the long injection plateau. The simulation models include limiting beam dynamics effects such as space charge and intra-beam scattering (IBS), whose impact on the future ion injector chain performance is discussed. Beam dynamics simulation results for the planned O8+ pilot physics run are also presented.

        Speaker: Elias Waagaard (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 238
        Fabrication and high-gradient testing of an X-band phase shifter for VIGAS

        A new X-band phase shifter for the Very Compact Inverse Compton Scattering Gamma-ray Source (VIGAS) program in Tsinghua University has been fabricated and conducted high-gradient testing. After 10 h of conditioning in the Tsinghua X-band high-power test stand (TPOT), the phase shifter reached a peak power of 72 MW at 230 ns pulse width, and peak power of 82 MW at 130 ns pulse width.

        Speaker: Qiang Gao (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 239
        Fabrication and low-power testing of an X-band mode converter for VIGAS

        A new X-band mode converter for the Very Compact Inverse Compton Scattering Gamma-ray Source (VIGAS) program in Tsinghua University has been fabricated and conducted low-power testing. S11 is under -30 dB with -0.05 dB of S21 at the operating frequency of 11.424GHz according to the low-power test using the vector network analyzer, which is consistent with simulation results.

        Speaker: An Li (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 240
        Feasibility study of the Alice fixed-target experiment with HL-LHC lead ion beams based on crystal-assisted beam Halo splitting

        The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, colliding beams of protons and lead ions at energies up to 7 ZTeV. ALICE is one of the detector experiments optimized for heavy-ion collisions.
        A fixed-target experiment in ALICE is considered to collide a portion of the beam halo, split using a bent crystal, with an internal target placed a few meters upstream of the detector. For proton beams, we have already demonstrated that such a setup provides satisfactory performance in terms of particle flux on target and that it can be safely operated in parallel to regular beam-beam collisions. On the other hand, in the case of lead ion beams, a beam halo is populated with nuclei of many species that may differ in charge, mass and magnetic rigidity, making such a scenario more challenging to operate. This paper summarizes our first considerations of the feasibility of a fixed-target layout at ALICE to be operated with lead ion beams in the LHC.

        Speaker: Marta Monikowska (Warsaw University of Technology)
      • 241
        Final physics design of proton improvement Plan-II at Fermilab

        This paper presents the final physics design of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) at Fermilab, focusing on the linear accelerator (Linac) and its beam transfer line. We address the challenges in longitudinal and transverse lattice design, specifically targeting collective effects, parametric resonances, and space charge nonlinearities that impact beam stability and emittance control. The strategies implemented effectively mitigate space charge complexities, resulting in significant improvements in beam quality—evidenced by reduced emittance growth, lower beam halo, decreased loss, and better energy spread management. This comprehensive study is pivotal for the PIP-II project's success, providing valuable insights and approaches for future accelerator designs, especially in managing nonlinearities and enhancing beam dynamics.

        Speaker: Abhishek Pathak (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 242
        Generating Super-Gaussian distribution and uniform sliced energy spread bunch for EIC strong hadron cooling

        Strong Hadron Cooling (SHC), utilizing the coherent electron cooling scheme, has been extensively investigated for the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). Throughout our cooling optimization studies, we realized that a Super-Gaussian electron bunch offers enhanced performance in comparison to a Gaussian bunch. Our approach involves initiating the electron beam distribution in a double peak form, transitioning them into a Super-Gaussian distribution due to the longitudinal space charge. Subsequently, a chicane within the linac section compresses the bunch to meet the required bunch length. We tuned a third harmonic cavity amplitude to reduce the nonlinear term of the chicane. Moreover, given the low initial current leading to a small but non-uniform slice energy spread, we evaluated utilizing laser heating techniques to achieve a uniformly distributed slice energy spread. In this report, we discuss the concepts and simulation results.

        Speaker: Erdong Wang (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 243
        Global betatron coupling compensation for the hadron storage ring of the Electron-Ion Collider

        The Electron Ion Collider (EIC), to be constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will collide polarized high-energy electron beams with hadron beams, achieving luminosities up to 1e+34 cm^−2 s^−1 in the center-mass energy range of 20-140 GeV. The Hadron Storage Ring (HSR) of the EIC will utilize the arcs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and construct new straight sections connecting the arcs. In this article, we will examine all available skew quadrupoles currently in the HSR lattice and explore possible schemes for future global betatron coupling correction with RHIC-like decoupling feedback system. The effects of detector solenoids and quadrupole rolls are estimated at injection and stored energies. We also studied the decoupling requirements for generating and maintaining large transverse emittance ratio beams in the HSR.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 244
        Haissinski distribution of electron beam in Electron-Ion Collider and its impact on the hadron beam

        The longitudinal distribution of the electron beam in the electron storage ring of the Electron-Ion Collider will be modified by the machine impedance. The modified distribution, combined with crab cavities may have an impact on the quality of the hadron beam during the collision. In this paper, we will explore the possible impact on the hadron beam quality with strong-strong and weak-strong beam-beam simulations.

        Speaker: Yue Hao (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)
      • 245
        High bunch charge linacs design for the FCC-ee project

        The international e-e FCC study group aims to design an accelerator complex capable of injecting tunable and high charge electron-positron bunches into a collider with center-of-mass energy between 90 and 365 GeV. The injector complex will boost the initial energy of the electron-positron bunches using multiple linacs accelerating only electrons, only positrons, and both species up to the booster injection energy of 20 GeV. The requirements on the charge poses several challenges for the injector chain due to the important role played by the wakefield both in the longitudinal and in the transverse planes. We optimized the bunch length, the RF aperture of the accelerating cavities and the linacs’ layout to match the target parameters at the booster injection. In the longitudinal space we studied the impact of the wakefield on the final beam energy spread. In the transverse plane we minimized the emittance growth due to static errors along the different sections using several orbit steering algorithms, and we verified the impact of dynamic errors for the most promising designs. Furthermore, we designed an energy compressor to add flexibility to our design, and to widely scan the beam charge without strongly modifying the final bunch parameters. In this work we present a summary of these studies, which led to the linac design satisfying all the present requests for the injection to the booster. This current design is the basis for the injector complex cost estimation.

        Speaker: Simona Bettoni (Paul Scherrer Institut)
      • 246
        Initial results from 35 keV H+ beam at the LANL RFQ test stand

        The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LASNCE) is over 50 years old. Currently, Cockroft-Waltons are being used to accelerate H+ and H- beams to 750 keV. The LANSCE Modernization Project (LAMP) is proposing to replace the font-end of LANSCE with a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). A RFQ Test Stand is being commissioned at LANL for technical demonstration of simultaneous dual-beam species acceleration through a RFQ under the timing constraints required by the LANSCE users facilities. We will describe the status and present initial results of the 35keV H+ line on the RFQ Test Stand.

        Speaker: Remington Thornton (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 247
        Lattice optimization of RF electron linac designed for VEGA LCS gamma-ray source

        The Variable Energy Gamma (VEGA) System is under implementation in Bucharest-Magurele Romania as one of the major components in the project of Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP). The VEGA System is designed as an advanced Laser Compton Scattering gamma-ray source with unique parameters in terms of high spectral density, monochromaticity, high polarizability, and energy tunability. It brings new opportunities and is dedicated for photonuclear research in both applied and fundamental physics, and will be open for worldwide users. Optimization of spectral density and guaranty of monochromaticity of the gamma-rays impose the necessity to control both, transverse emittance and energy spread, putting strong requirements on electron beam dynamics. The paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for the injector of the LCS gamma-ray source based on a normal-conducting RF LINAC, and investigation of a lattice configuration to optimize the electron beam parameters at the transfer line and storage ring entrance.

        Speaker: Piotr Tracz ("Horia Hulubei" National Institute for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering)
      • 248
        LHC 2023 ion optics commissioning

        In 2023, about 2 months of the LHC operation were devoted to the Heavy Ions physics, after more than 5 years since the last ion run. In this paper, the results of the 2023 Ion optics commissioning are reported. Local corrections in Interaction Point (IP) 1 and 5 were reused from the regular proton commissioning, but the optics measurement showed the need for new local corrections in IP2. We observed that an energy trim of the level of 10e-4 helped to reduce the optics errors at top energy. The dedicated measurements during the energy ramp revealed a larger than expected beta-beat, which is consistent with an energy mismatch. Furthermore, global corrections were performed to reach a β-beating of about 5% for the collision optics.

        Speaker: Vittorio Ferrentino (University of Naples Federico II)
      • 249
        LHC optics commissioning in 2023 and 2024

        The LHC machine configuration was changed in 2023 compared to previous years, requiring a new set of optics configurations to be measured and corrected. A telescopic optics was deployed in energy the ramp for the first time, which gave rise to a beta-beating of up to 25%. This was corrected using a global correction approach which reduced the beta-beat down to 10%. A change in the phase advance at injection was also applied to mitigate the negative effect of the main octupoles used to stabilize the beam. These measurements and corrections, coupled with the results from the 2024 commissioning, will be presented in this paper

        Speaker: Tobias Persson (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 250
        Local and global betatron coupling correction based on beam position measurements in RHIC

        Local coupling correction in Interaction Regions (IRs) and global coupling correction based on Base-Band Tune (BBQ) measurement have been performed routinely for RHIC operation. However, one still observes significant residual local coupling measured by beam position data. For the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) project, betatron decoupling for the hadron beam needs to be improved to maintain a large horizontal to vertical beam emittance ratio (12:1). In this paper, we will analyze the cause for noticeable residual coupling in RHIC and propose an integrated local and global betatron coupling correction based on beam position measurements and verify the new scheme with simulation and measurements.

        Speaker: Chuyu Liu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 251
        Luminosity effects due to dependent heavy-tailed beams

        The luminosity of particle colliders depends, among other parameters, on the transverse profiles of the colliding beams. At the LHC at CERN, heavy-tailed transverse beam distributions are typically observed in routine operation. The luminosity is usually modelled with the assumption that the 𝑥-𝑦 planes are independent (i.e. statistically uncorrelated particle distributions between the planes) in each beam. Analytical calculations show that the solution of inverting 1D heavy-tailed beam profiles to transverse 4D phase-space distributions is not unique. For a given transverse beam profile, the distributions can be dependent (i.e. statistically correlated) or independent in the transverse planes, even in the absence of machine coupling. In this work, the effect of transverse 𝑥-𝑦 dependence of the 4D phase space distribution on the luminosity of a particle collider is evaluated for heavy-tailed beams.

        Speaker: Elleanor Lamb (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
      • 252
        Luminosity maximization in a small vertex region at RHIC

        For the 2024 100 GeV proton run at RHIC, the new sPHENIX detector will require a maximum amount of collisions within ±10 cm of its central Interaction Point (IP), and preferably few or no collisions outside this range. To maximize the collisions within the vertex, a large crossing angle of up to 2 mrad will be used, operating the Large Piwinski Angle (LPA) scheme. To compensate for the reduction in luminosity from the large Piwinski angle, a β=50 cm lattice has been designed and supported with dynamic aperture simulations. To further compensate the luminosity reduction, injector studies have been performed to support up to a 45% increase in the injected intensity relative to the previous 100 GeV run in 2015.1

        Speaker: Kiel Hock (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 253
        Machine interlock system for accelerator section of PAL-XFEL

        Laser, MPS, Modulator, Vacuum, LLRF, etc. are installed at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory-XFEL linac section. Each device must be protected against emergency situations. When an interlock signal occurs in the XFEL linac section of Pohang Accelerator Research Institute, the beam shutter is closed using the PLC and the operation of each device is blocked. We used an Emerson PLC and connected the interlock signal to each device with a cable to the terminal block.
        The operating status of devices required for accelerator operation is displayed on the driver's cabin HMI, providing the driver with the information necessary for accelerator operation, and storing changed status data in real time. If the MIS is abnormal, beam operation is impossible, so the CPU and communication are each configured as redundant.

        Speaker: YoungJin Suh (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 254
        Magnetic focusing architecture for a compact electron buncher

        We present a beam-focusing architecture using electro- and permanent magnets for a novel compact electron beam buncher under development for space-borne electron accelerators. Developing compact and efficient accelerator components has become desirable with renewed interest in using space-borne electron beams for ionospheric aurora research and very low frequency wave generation for particle removal from the magnetosphere. An electron gun injects a direct current electron beam, and the buncher modulates the DC beam into periodic bunches at a frequency of 5.7 GHz. A 5.7 GHz linear accelerator in the downstream will capture the bunched beam with minimal acceptance mismatch. The beam modulation is done by three radiofrequency pillbox cavities. The buncher uses the electrostatic potential depression (EPD) method to shorten the structure length remarkably. The electron gun and a tunable solenoid provide the initial focusing of the beam. We then use a series of permanent magnets surrounding the buncher cavities clamped together by ferromagnetic steel plates to focus the beam through the buncher. Permanent magnets do not consume any power and weigh less than solenoid magnets, which provide equivalent focusing, making them ideal for use on a satellite or sounding rocket. We use the three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking solver from CST Studio Suite to simulate the beam-focusing.

        Speaker: Kevin Shipman (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 255
        Mechanical analysis and design for the LCLS-II-HE soft X-Ray undulator reconfiguration

        As a part of the High Energy upgrade to the Linac Coherent Light Source II at SLAC, LBNL is responsible for the update of the undulators of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) line. In order to span the required photon energy range, the SXR undulators require longer magnetic period. This increased magnetic period leads to higher magnetic force, requiring updates to certain elements of the design. In contrast, many elements can safely remain unchanged. This presentation details the updates and analyses performed to support the adaptation to HE-SXR, as well as pre-production undulator results.

        Speaker: Philip Mallon (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 256
        Mechanical design and 3-D coupled RF, thermal-structural analysis of the quarter wave stub for 197 MHz crab cavity

        Two distinct crab cavities are planned to compensate the luminosity loss of the 25 mrad crossing angle at the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) interaction point. The crab cavity systems being developed will operate at either 197 MHz or 394 MHz and the 197 MHz system will provide up to 11.5 MV of transverse voltage with up to 60 kW of fundamental mode power with a coaxial coupler. The 197 MHz crab cavity fields and high power transmission characteristics of the coaxial coupler require water cooling of the inner conductor. To introduce water into the inner conductor a coaxial tee with a quarter-wavelength stub is proposed with the water supply/return located at the zero voltage plane. This paper provides an overview of the current design, electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses for the Quarter Wave Stub.

        Speaker: Jean Clifford Brutus (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 257
        New high power linear accelerator ABC and platform

        At Varex Imaging Corporation, we have started a transition to our in-house supply of Accelerator Beam Centerlines (ABC), replacing Varian as a supplier. As part of this program we are considering changing design of our K-15, the only standard production unit capable of delivering Bremsstrahlung at 12000 R/min@1m by striking a copper target with high energy electron beam at 15 MeV. We plan on changing the RF source from frequency of 2856 MHz, used by Varian to 2998 MHz, establishing one common frequency for all our S-Band linear accelerator supply. We may be using a two-section design of the new 15 MeV ABC and yet various designs are being investigated, including, but not limited to two collinear standing wave (SW) sections and a patented combination of SW and Traveling Wave (TW) Sections with reverse feed. We have analyzed both concepts and present the preliminary analysis results. The platform can be used for running guides at various energy levels from 2 to 20 MeV, continuously changing energy or doing that selectively, various combinations of energy levels will be possible, also, upgrading the platform to higher average beam power levels. Indeed, operating at high average beam power above 1-2 kW level may require new advanced target development, and in case of e-beam applications, a scan horn will be required for extracting e-beam from vacuum to air.

        Speaker: Dr Andrey Mishin (Varex Imaging)
      • 258
        Numerical methods for emittance computation from luminosity

        The beam transverse emittances play a critical role in high-energy colliders. Various measurement techniques are employed to measure them. In particular, the so-called luminosity emittance scans (or Van der Meer scans) are used in order to evaluate the convoluted beam emittances. This method assumes different emittances in the two planes but identical emittances in the two beams. In this paper, we propose an approach to remove this constraint. After having presented the new measurement protocol, we will discuss its potential and limits, including the statistical measurement error of the luminosity value as obtained from numerical studies.

        Speaker: Matteo Rufolo (IDSIA Dalla Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence USI-SUPSI)
      • 259
        Operation of the LHC during the 2023 proton run

        In 2023 the LHC restarted after the yearly winter shutdown with a new machine configuration optimized for intensities of up to 1.8e+11 protons per bunch. In the first two months of the 2023 run the bunch intensities were pushed up to 1.6e+11 protons per bunch until a severe vacuum degradation, caused by a damaged RF bridge, occurred close to the ATLAS experiment. Following repair, the decision was taken to stop the intensity increase. After a period of smooth operation, a leak developed between the cold mass and insulation vacuum of a low-beta quadrupole, leading to an abrupt stop of the LHC. Thanks to a rapid intervention, the leak could be repaired without warning up large parts of the machine, and the LHC was ready for beam again early September. Special runs at very large beta* were completed in the remaining time before switching to Lead ion operation. The performance achievements and limitations as well as the issues that were encountered over the year will be discussed in this paper.

        Speaker: Andrea Calia (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 260
        Optimization design of photoneutron source for detecting dissolved substances in aqueous solutions

        Measuring the composition and content of dissolved substances in aqueous solutions is in demand in fields such as biomedicine, and industrial production. The material analysis technique based on thermal neutron capture reaction is one of the commonly used methods for analyzing the composition and content of dissolved substances in aqueous solutions. The material analysis technology based on thermal neutron capture reaction requires the selection of appropriate neutron sources. Due to its mobility, high neutron yield, moderate cost, controllable beam output, and being a pulse type neutron source, photoneutron sources are suitable for detecting dissolved substances in aqueous solutions. In this article, design and optimization of a photoneutron source based on a 7 MeV electron accelerator was done using the Monte Carlo simulation. At 1 µA current, the photoneutron sources can yield 1.6e+8 neutrons per second. The detection of gadolinium concentration in aqueous solution was carried out using this photoneutron source. The results showed that in 5-minute, the measurement error did not exceed 15% when the gadolinium concentration was between 0.6 g/L and 1.0 g/L.

        Speaker: Chunguang Zong (Tsinghua University)
      • 261
        Optimization of beam emittance under the influence of geomagnetic field

        The injector section of the SHINE device is currently in the debugging phase. The electron beam energy in the injector section is low and is significantly affected by the geomagnetic field, with an intensity of approximately 250 milligauss. Through theoretical optimization, adjustments to the positions and intensity parameters of helical coils and corrector magnets are being made to significantly reduce the growth of beam emittance under the influence of the geomagnetic field. The aim is to optimize the beam quality of the injector section of the SHINE device based on this model.

        Speaker: Zihan Zhu (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 262
        Performance test for single-spoke resonator superconducting cavities in RAON

        Single-spoke resonators (SSRs) have been developed and tested for the RAON SCL2 project. The design pa-rameters for the SSRs are provided, and the performance of the superconducting cavities is assessed. The single-spoke resonator cavities, cryogenic systems, cryostats, and human machine interface (HMI) are depicted for a vertical test. Calibration and cavity preparations are demonstrated to evaluate the performance of the super-conducting cavities. Testing of the single-spoke resonator type 1 (SSR1) performance is conducted via a vertical test. Q slopes are presented as a function of accelerating field, and Lorentz force detuning (LFD) as well as pres-sure sensitivity are conducted for the superconducting cavities.

        Speaker: Heetae Kim (Institute for Basic Science)
      • 263
        Permanent magnet electron energy synchrotron 2.5–18 GeV with fixed betatron tunes

        We are presenting a design of a 2-18 GeV electron synchrotron accelerator made of permanent non-linear combined function magnets with fixed betatron tunes. It is based on the successfully commissioned CBETA Energy Recovery Linac where we used a single return beam line based on Fixed Field Alternating gradient (FFA) principle. The 2 GeV injection energy electrons come from the Recirculating Llnear Accelerator (RLA) with 500 MeV linac and a single FFA linear combined function magnet beam line to return electrons to the linac. The electron collision energy uses the same single beam line avoiding the RF accelerating cavities during selected number of turns.

        Speaker: Dejan Trbojevic (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 264
        Polarization preservation methods for the Electron Storage Ring of the EIC

        The Electron Storage Ring (ESR) of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory will provide spin-polarized electron beams at 5, 10, and 18 GeV for collisions with polarized hadrons. Electron bunches with polarizations parallel and anti-parallel to the arc dipole fields will co-circulate in the ring at the same time, and each bunch must be replaced once it is sufficiently depolarized by synchrotron radiation. In this work, we detail the unique challenges posed by designing such a collider ring to operate at different energies, and their solutions. This includes satisfying spin matching conditions, calculating optimal energies for polarization, determining best figures-of-merit, maintaining high polarization without a traditional longitudinal spin match, restoring the spin match with random closed orbit distortions, and implementing global coupling compensation and vertical emittance creation schemes that preserve high polarization. Nonlinear tracking results are presented showing polarization requirements are exceeded.

        Speaker: Matthew Signorelli (Cornell University (CLASSE))
      • 265
        Progress on the design of the interaction region of the Electron-Ion Collider EIC

        We present an update on the design of the Interaction Region (IR) for the the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The EIC will collide high energy and highly polarized hadron and electron beams with a center of mass energy up to 140 GeV with luminosities of up to 10^34 /cm^2/s. The IR, located at RHIC's IR6, is designed to meet the requirements of the nuclear physics community as outlined in [1]. A second IR is technically feasible but not part of the project.
        The magnet apertures are sufficiently large to allow desired collision products to reach the far-forward detectors; the electron magnet apertures in the rear direction are chosen to be large enough to pass the synchrotron radiation fan. In the forward direction the electron apertures are large enough for non-Gaussian tails.
        The paper discusses a number of recent recent changes to the design. The machine free region was recently increased from 9 to 9.5 m to allow for more space in the forward direction for the detector. The superconducting magnets on the forward side now operate at 1.9 K, which helps crosstalk and space issues.

        Speaker: Holger Witte (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 266
        R&D of X-band deflecting structure applied on SHINE

        For the development of X-band deflecting structure at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), two units of X-band deflecting structures totally including six RF structures have been used on SXFEL successfully for ultra-fast beam diagnostics. The construction of another new FEL facility has started from 2018, which is named Shanghai high repetition rate XFEL and extreme light facility (SHINE). Four units of X-band deflectors will be installed on SHINE. The design and measurement of the first prototype has been finished, and the high power test will be carried out soon, in this paper, the design and measurement results will be presented.

        Speaker: Jianhao Tan (Shanghai Advanced Research Institute)
      • 267
        Recycling magnets for the EIC electron storage ring

        The Electron Storage Ring (ESR) of the Electron-Ion Collider requires some 400 quadrupoles and 200 sextupoles, plus dipole magnets and correctors. In an effort to reduce cost and relax the demand on the magnet vendor pool, used quadrupoles and sextupoles of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory will be refurbished and installed in the ESR.

        Speaker: Harshita Singh (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL))
      • 268
        RHIC Au-Au operation at 100 GeV in Run 23

        The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Run 23 program consisted of collisions of 100 GeV gold beams at two collision points for the first time since 2016; the sPHENIX collaboration used the beam to commission their new detector systems while STAR took physics data. Completion of sPHENIX construction pushed the start of the run to May, forcing the collider complex to operate over the summer months and incurring lower than normal availability due to heat and power dip related problems. Issues with dynamic pressure rise during acceleration through transition resulted in a slower ramp up of intensity compared to prior years. Finally, a failure of a warm-to-cold current lead interface in the valve box for the Main Magnet power supply forced the run to end. This paper will discuss the progress made by each experiment and the failure mode, repair and mitigation efforts in preparation for Run 24.

        Speaker: Travis Shrey (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 269
        RPI LINAC refurbishment control system engineering plan

        The RPI LINAC refurbishment control system engineering plan outlines Cosylab's and RPI's approach to initiating and managing the control system architecture for an accelerator refurbishment project at RPI. One of the goals was to achieve a low total cost of ownership, which encompasses the direct price, the cost of maintenance, the upgrade potential, and the quality and cost of support services. To create the technical part RPI provided valuable knowledge and experience from running the RPI LINAC and Cosylab used prior experience and industry best practices to deliver high-level project documentation, which includes the control system architecture, strategies for device integration, and clearly defined scope descriptions. The documentation also covers specific content, such as detailed subsystem descriptions, device interface descriptions, subsystem operation descriptions and recommended implementation methods for specific device types. Several technical solutions, lead time comparisons, and the quality of support services were thoroughly evaluated. In terms of project management, a concrete upgrade plan was developed. A standard project management process was proposed. The work was divided into independent work packages, and included a recommended sequence within the project. The outcome of the study is a comprehensive document, which provides all the necessary information required to initiate the control software portion of the project.

        Speaker: Tina Krzic (Cosylab)
      • 270
        Sextupole RDTs in the LHC at injection and in the ramp

        During 2023, examination of the action dependence of sextupolar resonance driving terms (RDT) in the LHC at injection, as measured with an AC-dipole, demonstrated that a robust measurement of the RDTs could still be achieved even with very small amplitude kicks, typically used for linear optics studies. Consequently, analysis of optics measurements from 2022 and 2023 during the LHC energy ramp allowed a first measurement of the sextupole resonance evolution. A large asymmetry was observed between the two LHC beams, with the clockwise circulating beam (LHCB1) significantly worse than the counter-clockwise circulating beam (LHCB2), and a clear increase in the RDT strength during the ramp was observed. Results are presented and compared to MAD-X simulations, in this report.

        Speaker: Tobias Persson (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 271
        Simulated impact of the HL-LHC beam on a graphite target

        In the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) era, the intensity of the circulating bunches will increase to 2.2e+11 protons per bunch, almost twice the nominal LHC value. Besides detailed studies of known and new failure cases for HL-LHC, it is also required to investigate failures beyond nominal design. A consequence of such failures can be the impact of a large number of high-energy particles in one location, resulting in a significantly increased dam- age range due to an effect called hydrodynamic tunnelling.

        This phenomenon is studied by coupling FLUKA, an energy deposition code, and Autodyn, a hydrodynamic code. This paper presents the simulated evolution of the deposited energy, density, temperature and pressure for the impact of the HL-LHC beam on a graphite target. It then computes the resulting tunnelling range and finally compares the outcome with previous studies using LHC intensities.

        Speaker: Dr John Heron (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 272
        Simulations of positron capture at Ce+BAF

        We present an initial capture concept for the continuous wave (CW) polarized positron beam at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) upgrade at Jefferson Lab. This two-step concept is based on (1) the generation of bremsstrahlung radiation by a longitudinally polarized electron beam (1 mA, 120 MeV, >90% polarization), passing through a tungsten target, and (2) the production of e+e- pairs by these bremsstrahlung photons in the same target. To provide highly-polarized positron beams (>60% polarization) or high-current positron beams (>1 μA) with low polarization for nuclear physics experiments, the positron source requires a flexible capture system with an adjustable energy selection band. The results of beam dynamics simulations and calculations of the power deposited in the positron capture section are presented.

        Speaker: Andriy Ushakov (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 273
        Single line ERL permanent magnet FFA accelerator for LHeC

        We present a Fixed-Field-Alternating (FFA) permanent magnet racetrack electron accelerator with energy range between 10-60 GeV for the future LHeC. Electron beam is brought back to the linac by the single beam line without requiring electric power REDUCING estimated wall power of 100 MW in the present LHeC design to a negligible power for arcs as the permanent magnets are used. The design is based on experience from the very successful commissioning of the Cornell University and Brookhaven National Laboratory Energy Recovery Test Accelerator – ‘CBETA’. The proposal supports sustainability efforts for LHeC by making a 'green' accelerator. It is an energy recovery linac with 99.9% energy efficiency and reduces the power consumption by using small permanent magnets. The FFA non-linear gradient design is a racetrack shape, where, as in the CBETA, the arcs are matched by adiabatic transition to the two (LHeC) or multiple straight sections. Two 10 GeV superconducting linacs are placed on both sides of the Interaction Region (IR) significantly reducing the power of synchrotron radiation loss.

        Speaker: Dejan Trbojevic (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 274
        Status of the commissioning of the X-band injector prototype for AWAKE Run 2c

        The status of commissioning of the electron injector intended for the next phase of the proton driven wakefield experiment (AWAKE) is presented, showing first experimental results from operating the brazing-free electron gun. To provide a high-quality electron beam, the UV laser was centered on the copper cathode, and a novel simplex and beam-based alignment of the focusing solenoid was performed. Measurements of the beam parameters and working points are addressed. The electron gun is shown to provide a high quality, stable and reproducible beam.

        Speaker: Edda Gschwendtner (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 275
        Status of the second interaction region design for Electron-Ion Collider

        Provisions are being made in the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) design for future installation of a second Interaction Region (IR), in addition to the day-one primary IR. The envisioned location for the second IR is the existing experimental hall at RHIC IP8. It is designed to work with the same beam energy combinations as the first IR, covering a full range of the center-of-mass energy of ~20 GeV to ~140 GeV. The goal of the second IR is to complement the first IR, and to improve the detection of scattered particles with magnetic rigidities similar to those of the ion beam. To achieve this, the second IR hadron beamline features a secondary focus in the forward ion direction. The design of the second IR is still evolving. This paper reports the current status of its parameters, magnet layout, and beam dynamics and discusses the ongoing improvements being made to ensure its optimal performance

        Speaker: Bamunuvita Gamage (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 276
        Studies of space-charge compensation of positive ions by creating time-dependent secondary electrons in low-energy beam transport line

        The space-charge neutralization of an ion beam by created electrons when the beam ionizes the gas is investigated using a three-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell code. Different kinds of injected gases are considered, and their space-charge compensation transient times are compared. The created secondary electrons by the beam collision with neutral gas along the beam trajectories are loaded in the simulation by a Monte Carlo generator, and their space charge contribution is added to the primary beam space charge densities. The injection and accumulation of secondaries are time-dependent and this process is continued until total space charge densities reach a steady state. In this study, a 2.4-meter LEBT line with two solenoid magnets is considered. Usually, the proton beam energy is 25 keV and the current level is around 10-15 mA. Additionally, beam extraction studies are conducted, and the extracted beam is used in both IBSIMU and Tracewin codes for LEBT lines to validate the results.

        Speaker: Emre Cosgun (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)
      • 277
        Study of interfering spin resonances in multi-snake lattice

        Using a simplified multi spin resonances model we study the how the interference of spin resonances near a strong intrinsic spin resonance crossing effect the polarization transmission as a function of emittance for a lattice with more than two snakes.

        Speaker: Dr Vahid Ranjbar (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL))
      • 278
        Study of orbital effects on EIC detector synchrotron radiation background

        Synchrotron radiation could contribute to detector background significantly, especially when the electron beam deviates from the design orbit. Without effective control, synchrotron radiation could impede physics data taking or even damage detector components. One of the key contributors to suppress synchrotron radiation in the Electron-Ion Collider IR is to control the electron orbit upstream the detectors. Therefore, it is imperative to define the tolerance of orbit errors in the IR which requires studying the orbital effects on synchrotron radiation. In this report, we will present the studies of orbital effects on synchrotron radiation background in EIC IR, including beam offsets introduced by upstream dipole, correctors, and quadrupole offsets.

        Speaker: Chuyu Liu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 279
        Study of the corrector systems for the new lattice of the CERN hadron-hadron Future Circular Collider

        A new layout for the energy-frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) under study at CERN has been designed, following the constraints imposed by the outcome of recent tunnel placement studies. The new lattice and the need to maximize the dipole filling factor triggered a deep revision of the corrector systems located in the regular arcs, such as orbit, tune, linear coupling, and chromaticity correctors. The system of octupoles aimed at providing Landau damping has also been reviewed. Furthermore, the corrector package in the experimental insertion aimed at compensating the field quality of the triplet quadrupoles has been reconsidered in view of the experience gained with the design of the corresponding system developed for the CERN HL-LHC. In this paper, an account of this review is presented and discussed in detail. These estimates will need confirmation when the magnet design of the various correctors will be studied.

        Speaker: Gustavo Perez-Segurana (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 280
        The design progress of a high charge low energy spread polarized pre injector for Electron Ion Collider

        The polarized pre-injector for the Electron-Ion Collider is intended to produce four bunches every second, each containing 7 nC, with 85% polarization along the longitudinal axis, for injection into the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron. The pre-injector consists of a polarized electron source, bunching section, longitudinal phase space manipulation, and SLC-Type LINAC. To reduce energy spread and increase bunch length, a compact zig-zag chicane and dechirp cavity rotate the bunch in longitudinal phase space. In this paper, we will discuss the progress of recent pre-injection design and RF frequency selection. Additionally, we will examine the effects of wakefield, as well as coherent and incoherent synchrotron radiation on beam quality.

        Speaker: Erdong Wang (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 281
        The EIC accelerator: design highlights and project status

        The design of the electron-ion collider (EIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is well underway, aiming at a peak electron-proton luminosity of 10e+34 cm^-1·sec^-1. This high luminosity, the wide center-of-mass energy range from 29 to 141 GeV (e-p) and the high level of polarization require innovative solutions to maximize the performance of the machine, which makes the EIC one of the most challenging accelerator projects to date. The complexity of the EIC will be discussed, and the project status and plans will be presented.

        Speaker: Sergei Nagaitsev (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL))
      • 282
        The hadron storage ring lattice of the Electron-Ion Collider

        The hadron storage ring (HSR) of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is a modification of the RHIC for acceleration and collision of protons and ions. The 6 straights in RHIC will be modified, and the 6 arcs will be left in place. There are four geometric configurations, switching one arc depending upon the energy of the hadrons or ions, and with two different configurations for one straight, where ultimately there will be a second detector, but initially the detector will be absent. For a given configuration, there are multiple sets of magnet strengths different ion species and different states (collision modes, injection, transition, pre-squeeze, etc.). We will describe important characteristics of the configurations and states we have studied. We explain the functions of the individual straights and describe recent modifications to their designs. We discuss the choice for the integer part of the tunes and the process by which the tune is set. We will also indicate how limitations on existing power supplies in RHIC constrain the design.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 283
        Toward a long-lifetime polarized photoelectron gun for the Ce+BAF positron source

        The addition of spin-polarized, continuous-wave (c.w.) positron beams to the 12 GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) would provide a significant capability to the experimental nuclear physics program at Jefferson Lab. Based on bremsstrahlung and pair-production in a high-Z target, the positron source requires a 120 MeV spin-polarized c.w. electron beam of several milliamperes. While the beam dynamics of the high-current electron beam are tenable, sustaining this current for weeks of user operations requires an unprecedented charge lifetime from a high-polarization GaAs-based photocathode. A promising approach to exceed the kilocoulomb charge lifetime barrier is reducing the ion back-bombardment fluence at the photocathode. By increasing the laser size and managing the emittance growth with an adequate cathode/anode design, significantly enhanced charge lifetime may be achieved. Based upon a new simulation model that qualitatively explains the lifetime data previously measured at different spot sizes, we describe the practical implications on the parameter space available for a kilocoulomb-lifetime polarized photogun design.

        Speaker: Max Bruker (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 284
        Towards large phase space beams at the CEBAF injector

        We report on the status of a degrader device to generate large phase space beams for machine acceptance studies in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. The degrader device consists of thin, low-Z targets to degrade the electron beam phase space through multiple scattering, two apertures to define the maximum transverse emittance, and a solenoid to aid in matching to the rest of the injector beamline. The engineering design of the degrader device and projected degraded beam phase space parameters obtained from simulation are presented.

        Speaker: Amy Sy (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
      • 285
        Transfer learning for field emission mitigation in CEBAF SRF cavities

        The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) operates hundreds of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in its two linear accelerators (linacs). Field emission (FE) is an ongoing operational challenge in higher gradient SRF cavities. FE generates high levels of neutron and gamma radiation leading to damaged accelerator hardware and a radiation hazard environment. During machine development periods, we performed invasive gradient scans to record data capturing the relationship between cavity gradients and radiation levels measured throughout the linacs. However, the field emission environment at CEBAF varies considerably over time as the configuration of the radio-frequency (RF) gradients changes or due to the strengthening of existing field emitters or the abrupt appearance of new field emitters. To mitigate FE and lower the radiation levels, an artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) approach with transfer learning is needed. In this work, we mainly focus on leveraging the RF trip data gathered during CEBAF normal operation. We develop a transfer learning based surrogate model for radiation detector readings given RF cavity gradients to track the CEBAF’s changing configuration and environment. Then, we could use the developed model as an optimization process for redistributing the RF gradients within a linac to mitigate field emission.

        Speaker: Kawser Ahammed (Old Dominion University)
      • 286
        Transversely driven coherent beam oscillations in the EIC electron storage ring

        We study coherent transverse beam oscillations in the EIC electron storage ring (ESR), to specify the tolerance for high-frequency ripple of the magnet power supplies. To avoid unacceptable proton emittance growth from the oscillating beam-beam kick from the electrons, the amplitude of these oscillations at the proton betatron frequency needs to be limited to about 1e-4 fraction of the beam size at the interaction point. We show that the oscillations potentially caused by the ESR magnet dipole power supply ripple could be substantial, but still tolerable, if we account for the eddy current shielding in the vacuum chamber. Beam size oscillations, potentially caused by the rippling quadrupole magnet power supplies are also studied and appear manageable.

        Speaker: Boris Podobedov (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 287
        Weak-strong beam-beam simulation with crab cavity noises for the hadron storage ring of the Electron-Ion Collider

        The Electron Ion Collider (EIC), to be constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will collide polarized high-energy electron beams with hadron beams, achieving luminosities of up to 1e+34 cm^−2 s^−1 in the center-mass energy range of 20-140 GeV. Crab cavities are employed to compensate for the geometric luminosity loss caused by a large crossing angle of 25 mrad in the interaction region. The phase noise in crab cavities will induce a significant emittance growth for the hadron beams in the Hadron Storage Ring (HSR). Various models have been utilized to study the effects of crab cavity phase noise. In this article, we present our numerical simulation results using a weak-strong beam-beam model. In addition to horizontal emittance growth, we also observed vertical emittance growth resulting from both crab cavity noises and beam-beam interaction. The tolerance for crab cavity phase noise was determined and compared with analytical predictions.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 288
        Wide range tune scan for the hadron storage ring of the Electron-Ion Collider

        The Electron Ion Collider (EIC), to be constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will collide polarized high-energy electron beams with hadron beams, achieving luminosities up to 1e+34 cm^−2 s^−1 in the center-mass energy range of 20-140 GeV. The current fractional design tunes for the Hadron Storage Ring (HSR) are (0.228, 0.210) to mitigate the effects of synchro-betatron resonances. In this article, based on a strong-strong beam-beam simulation model, we carried out a wide range tune scan for the HSR to search for optimum working points. We found a good tune space around (0.735, 0.710), which is close to the working point (0.695, 0.685) of the polarized proton operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We plan to further estimate the dynamic aperture and polarization with this working point.

        Speaker: Derong Xu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 289
        ZDC effective cross section for Gold-Gold Collisions During RHIC'S Run 16

        The 2016 Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au-Au run took place from January 25 to June 27, 2016. Four so-called vernier scans were performed at 100 GeV per beam, with γ=107.396 at flattop at one of the interaction points, IP6. During this type of procedure, one beam is swept across the other, first horizontally and then vertically, recording the interaction rate as a function of the beam to beam separation. From that data, the effective cross section of the Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) can be derived. This paper discusses the results of the scans, as well as the systematic uncertainties of the derived effective cross section.

        Speaker: Kirsten Drees (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
    • Monday Poster Session: MOPG Bluegrass (MCC Exhibit Hall A)


      MCC Exhibit Hall A

      • 290
        A compact water window X-ray source based on inverse Compton scattering

        X-rays in the water window (2.33 nm to 4.40 nm wavelength) can be used to provide high quality images of wet biological samples. Given the limited availability of current generation light sources in this energy range, table-top water window X-ray sources have been proposed as alternatives. We present start-to-end simulations in RF-Track of a water window X-ray source based on inverse Compton scattering. A brazing-free electron gun with a maximum beam energy of 7 MeV is considered, providing photon energies covering the full water window range. Performance estimates for the gun operating with copper and cesium telluride cathodes are presented. The cesium telluride cathode, combined with a burst mode Fabry-Perot cavity, allows for an increase in flux by orders of magnitude compared to single bunch copper cathode operation. A beamline of 1 m was determined to be sufficient to produce a high photon flux.

        Speaker: Javier Olivares Herrador (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 291
        A faster algorithm to compute lowest order longitudinal and transverse resistive wall wake for non-ultrarelativistic case

        With the development of the steady state micro bunching (SSMB) storage ring, its parameters reveal that the ultra relativistic assumption which is wildly used is not valid for the electron beam bunch train, which has length in the 100 nm range, spacing of 1 μm and energy in hundreds MeV range. The strength of the interaction between such bunches and the potential instability may need careful evaluation. At the same time, the effect of the space charge inside a single bunch due to space charge effect also needs to be considered. In this article, we reorganized the lowest-order longitudinal wakefield under non-ultra relativistic conditions, and the lowest-order transverse wakefield. We present the modified theoretical results and analysis. Then based on the result we have derived, we give a algorithm which is thousands time faster than direct calculation. It lays foundation in future research.

        Speaker: Mr Jiazhen Tang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 292
        A seeded THz free electron laser with an overmoded waveguide to reduce diffraction

        THz (1e+12 Hz) radiation is very attractive for its non-ionizing penetrative nature and unique absorption in water, metals, and other chemicals. While THz has great potential for imaging and for diagnosing chemical traces, it has not been utilized extensively due to scarcity of high-power THz sources. Currently, compact THz sources deliver power in the range of 50 μW — 0.5 W, insufficient for most imaging and sensing applications. A compact THz sources is proposed to mitigate this gap of technology. FELs have been used for THz generation but have not been compact enough for most applications. The recent demonstration of waveguide THz FELs [1] has opened the door to more compact THz FELs. We propose a design of a seeded THz FEL with an overmoded waveguide. In addition, an efficient use of compact photoinjector to drive particles in energy of 2-4 MeV greatly reduces the overall footprint by 20%. We plan to use high-power GUNN diodes provides to efficiently seed THz power to the electron bunches, reducing the overall length of the device by 200%. An overmoded waveguide will allow for a larger waveguide to be used. The design has the potential to unleash full potential of THz spectrum.

        Speaker: Muhammed Zuboraj (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 293
        An experimental proposal for the strong-filed Terahertz generation at SXFEL facility

        Strong field Terahertz (THz) light source has been in-creasingly important for many scientific frontiers, while it is still a challenge to obtain THz radiation with high pulse energy at wide-tunable frequency. In this paper, we introduce an accelerator-based strong filed THz light source to obtain coherent THz radiation with high pulse energy and tunable frequency and X-ray pulse at the same time, which adopts a frequency beating laser pulse modulated electron beam. Here, we present the experimental preparation for the strong filed THz radiation at shanghai soft X-ray free-electron laser (SXFEL) facility and show its simulated radiation performance.

        Speaker: Kaiqing Zhang (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility)
      • 294
        An update on EIC rapid cycling synchrotron optics

        The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) requires continuous replacement of the stored electron bunches to facilitate arbitrary spin patterns in the Electron Storage Ring (ESR). This is accomplished by a dedicated, spin transparent Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). The dynamic range of the accelerator is from 400 MeV to 18 GeV. To maintain stability throughout the acceleration ramp, the linear and nonlinear optics must be tuned accordingly. In this paper, we will discuss the updated linear optics, chromaticities, and dynamic aperture of the RCS.

        Speaker: Dr Vahid Ranjbar (Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL))
      • 295
        Attosecond research at the Linac Coherent Light Source

        Attosecond X-ray free-electron lasers can deliver isolated sub-fs pulses with a peak power that surpasses conventional table-top sources by more than six orders of magnitude in the soft X-ray region [1]. The intensity at the focus is sufficient for non-linear X-ray spectroscopy methods, and two-color configurations enable applications such as attosecond pump/attosecond probe experiments.
        I will discuss the development of attosecond XFELs at the Linac Coherent Light Source: from the demonstration of isolated soft X-ray pulses with the XLEAP project, to the recent development of terawatt-scale pulses and attosecond pump/probe capabilities. I will also present our plans for attosecond science with the LCLS-II linac, which will enhance the available repetition rate by up to four orders of magnitude (up to 1 MHz [2]).

        Speaker: Agostino Marinelli (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 296
        Beam dynamics of twin-bunch generation in the LCLS-II

        The LCLS-II is a high repetition rate upgrade to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and will offer photon science users an unprecedented million pulses per second. However, the accelerating gradient on the cathode of the Very-High-Frequency photoinjector is relatively lower compared to traditional electron guns, the longitudinal beam dynamics become more complicated as required to achieve bunch current high of kA. This paper presents the simulation study of twin-bunch generation in the LCLS-II and analyzes the feasibility of corresponding experimental demonstration in the LCLS-II.

        Speaker: Dr Zihan Zhu (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 297
        Beam dynamics study for a high-repetition-rate infrared terahertz FEL facility

        The paper introduces design and optimization of a high-repetition-rate infrared terahertz free-electron laser (IR-THz FEL) facility, which leverages optical resonator-based FEL technology to achieve a higher mean power output by increasing pulse frequency. Electron beam of the facility will be generated from a photocathode RF gun injector and further accelerated with a superconducting linear accelerator. Taking into account the collective effects, such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and longitudinal cavity wake field impacts, beam dynamics simulation for the injector, the accelerator, as well as the bunch compressor, has been done with codes of ASTRA and CSRTrack. With optimized microwave parameters of the linac, current profile with good symmetry has been obtained and the peak current can reach 100 A.

        Speaker: Yimin Yang (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 298
        Beam-based alignment simulations for the Future Circular Collider electron lattice

        Parallel beam-based alignment (PBBA) techniques can be used to determine the magnetic centers for multiple magnets with simultaneous measurements and are much faster than traditional methods which target one magnet at a time. The PBBA techniques are very desirable for commissioning larger machines such as the Future Circular Collider (FCC). In this study, we applied PBBA techniques on quadrupoles and sextupole magnets for the FCC-ee lattice in simulations. Improvements to the PBBA techniques were made.
        It is shown that sub 10-micron accuracy for quadrupoles and sub 20-micro accuracy for sextupoles can be achieved.

        Speaker: Xiaobiao Huang (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
      • 299
        Calculation of focal spot of secondary X-rays generated by high-energy electron beam bombarding of heavy metal targets

        One of the main methods to generate X-rays is to bombard metal targets with electron beams. However, this process introduces uncertainty in the electron transport, which leads to uncertainty in the position and momentum of the secondary X-rays. As a result, the focal spot of the X-rays is larger than the electron beam. In this paper, we use the Monte Carlo software Geant4 to investigate the conditions for minimizing the X-ray focal spot size. We assign different weights to the X-rays according to their energy components, based on the actual application parameters, and calculate the focal spot size for three target materials: lead, copper, and tungsten, finding that when the incident electron energy is in the MeV range and the electron source radius is 1 um, the mass thickness of the target of 1.935×10e-3 g/cm^2 is the limit for achieving the smallest equivalent focal spot size.

        Speaker: Boyuan Feng (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 300
        Challenges and mitigation measures for synchrotron radiation on the FCC-ee arcs

        In a high-energy circular electron-positron collider like the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) at CERN, synchrotron radiation (SR) presents a significant challenge due to the radiation load on collider magnets and equipment in the tunnel like cables, optical fibers, and electronics. The efficiency of the anticipated photon absorbers in the vacuum chambers depends on the operational beam energy, ranging from 45.6 GeV to 182.5 GeV. Radiation load studies using FLUKA are conducted for the four operation modes to assess the SR impact on various systems and equipment. Particularly at higher energies (120 GeV and 182.5 GeV), the radiation levels in the tunnel environment would likely not be sustainable. The objective is to implement a mitigation strategy that enables the placement of essential components, such as electronics, power converters, and beam instrumentation, in the tunnel, while enduring both instantaneous and long-term radiation effects over multiple years.

        Speaker: Alessandro Frasca (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
      • 301
        Characterization of a single-pass high-gain THz FEL at PITZ

        A single-pass THz free-electron laser (FEL) at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) was designed and implemented for a proof-of-principle experiment on a tunable high-power THz source for pump-probe experiments at the European XFEL. THz pulses are generated at a radiation wavelength of 100 μm within a 3.5 m long, strongly focusing planar LCLS-I undulator. High gain is achieved by driving the FEL with high brightness beams from the PITZ photoinjector at 17 MeV and a bunch charge of up to several nC. In addition to the mechanisms of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeding of the THz-FEL by electron bunch modulation at the photocathode is also being investigated. The experimental results, including the gain curves and spectral properties of the THz-FEL radiation, are presented in comparison with theoretical predictions and numerical simulations.

        Speaker: Xiao-Yang Zhang (Tsinghua University in Beijing)
      • 302
        Characterization of FEL mirrors with long ROCs

        FEL oscillators typically employ a two-mirror cavity with spherical mirrors. For storage ring FELs, a long, nearly concentric FEL cavity is utilized to achieve a reasonably small Rayleigh range, optimizing the FEL gain. A challenge for the Duke storage ring, with a 53.73 m long cavity, is the characterization of FEL mirrors with a long radius of curvature (ROC). The Duke FEL serves as the laser drive for the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). As we extend the energy coverage of the gamma-ray beam from 1 to 120 MeV, the FEL operation wavelength has expanded from infrared to VUV (1 micron to 170 nm). To optimize Compton gamma-ray production, the optimal value for the mirror's ROC needs to vary from 27.5 m to about 28.5 m. Measuring long mirror ROCs (> 10 m) with tight tolerances remains a challenge. We have developed two different techniques, one based on light diffraction and the other on geometric imaging, to measure the long ROCs. In this work, we present both techniques and compare their strengths and weaknesses when applied to measure mirror substrates with low reflectivity and FEL mirrors with high reflectivity.

        Speaker: William Delooze (Duke University)
      • 303
        Characterization of low-emittance electron beams generated by a new photocathode drive laser system NEPAL at the European XFEL

        An ultrafast laser system for driving the photocathode RF gun at the European XFEL has been recently put into operation. The new laser system, NExt generation PhotocAthode Laser (NEPAL) is capable of providing drive laser pulses of variable pulse lengths and shapes, supporting the facility to extend its capabilities to operate in multiple user-desirable FEL modes. In this paper, we present a preliminary characterization of the low-emittance electron beams produced by NEPAL in the photoinjector. Both experimental and numerical results will be presented and discussed.